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The origins of the concept in Enlightenment intellectual culture

6 Chapter 8 The spoken word Constructing oral tradition Constructing oral tradition: the origins of the concept in Enlightenment intellectual culture Nicholas Hudson [M]any circumstances of those times we call barbarous are favourable to the poetical spirit. That state, in which human nature shoots wild and free, though unfit for other improvements, certainly encourages the high exertions of fancy and passion . . . An American chief, at this day, harangues at the head of his tribe, in a more bold and metaphorical style, than a modern European would adventure

in The spoken word

, university history is an old phenomenon. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Europe’s learned community was inspired by the anniversary celebrations of the church to create a secular commemorative culture of its own. The earliest writings of university history were produced against this background, their principal task being to celebrate the alma mater. At the end of the eighteenth century, when historiography gradually developed into a form of professional scholarship, academic publications on the history of universities began to appear. Behind these lay a

in Humboldt and the modern German university
South Korea’s development of a hepatitis B vaccine and national prevention strategy focused on newborns

transmitted at high rates through everyday activities, public panic focused particularly on transmission through indirect oral contact, especially through saliva. Most commentary in the media drew attention to the habit of sharing glasses in Korean drinking culture. Most social drinking in the workplaces or family gatherings tended to involve shared glasses, leaving individuals almost no choice. Then, after the emergence of the hepatitis B epidemic, public panic

in The politics of vaccination
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Cautionary tales and oral tradition in early modern England

6 Chapter 6 The spoken word Reformed folklore? Reformed folklore? Cautionary tales and oral tradition in early modern England Alexandra Walsham P rotestantism and print have often been presented as inherently hostile to oral tradition. Historians have credited both with a leading role in marginalizing, fossilizing, and ultimately suffocating the vernacular culture of late medieval England. Still widely regarded as a movement whose success depended upon the spread of literacy and the advent of the press, the Reformation is commonly associated with attempts to

in The spoken word

intellectual, social and political culture, the ambition is to contribute to an understanding of the nature of political debate in the period of his life. Toland moved in a, at times, bewildering set of different circles and milieux; as previous historians have noted with a touch of understandable exasperation, his ‘identity’ is elusive. This mercurial ubiquity, while frustrating to those who might wish to capture Toland’s essence, makes him a fertile resource for exploring the dimensions of early eighteenth-century intellectual culture. Toland’s ambiguity was a reflection

in Republican learning

of Llywelyn the Great, ‘which Gladius the Welshmen take for a goddesse’.27 Tombs and shrines provided physical pegs on which to hang the historical and genealogical traditions which were an important part of oral culture. The destruction of so many monuments at the Reformation inevitably involved an assault on Welsh historical mythology.28 The relationship between identity and language was complex in late medieval and Tudor Wales. In addition to a hierarchy of languages there was a hierarchy of media for recording these languages. The available evidence, which

in The spoken word
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possible, belief in equality of sacrifices, belief in the integrity and efficiency of the leadership, and belief that the war was necessary and just.2 It is the efforts the Government and its allies in the media made to promote the ‘mental factors’ that form the subject of this chapter. chap4.p65 141 16/09/02, 09:25 142 EXPLANATIONS Controlling the news At the Ministry of Information the brief to sustain the morale of the people was translated into a three-fold policy: firstly, the replacement of free availability of news and information with a regime in which

in Half the battle
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combination of historical and contemporary reflections. Directly or indirectly, they invoked the long German tradition of discussing the idea of the university. Jochen Hörisch’s Die ungeliebte Universität – with the subtitle Rettet die Alma mater! (approx. ‘The unloved university – save the alma mater!) – attracted attention when it was published in 2006. The writer was a well-known scholar of literature and media with an extensive output; besides, he was present in public life and on the theatre stage. As in many other contemporary writings, the Bologna process came under

in Humboldt and the modern German university
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) where there were no original indigenes, 2 they changed irrevocably the social vocabulary of the metropole. The role of culture as a means of subverting the dominant order is, arguably, at its most refined in the Caribbean. 3 The long centuries of slavery provided a fitting apprenticeship where the ground rules of alternative, creolised, cultural forms and social practices were laid

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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Beyond the witch trials

of intellectual and social leaps. It should rather be seen as a period of subtler renegotiation between cultures, and a period when the relationship between private and public beliefs became more problematic and discrete, and therefore more difficult for the historian to detect. The study of witchcraft and magic provides us with an important means of exploring these broad changing patterns of social relations and mentalities, just as it has done much to help our understanding of social relations in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century society. Yet the ‘beyond’ in the

in Beyond the witch trials