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Alistair Cole

were all part of this trend. Chirac and Jospin, the prematurely ‘preordained’ second-round contenders, obtained only just over one-third of votes and one-quarter of registered voters between them. The corollary of this is the development of parties and movements which have defined themselves against the existing political elites, such as the FN, but also LO and the Ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (LCR). While these forces are marginal in the bipolar party system, they demonstrate the survival of a tradition of radical politics on the far left and extreme right

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Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

check. In the 1820s, the emergent opposition between Jewish emancipation and the Jewish question may be illustrated through the debate between the older and allegedly more conservative Hegel and the radical German populist and student radical, Jacob Fries. In a pamphlet titled On the Danger Posed to the Welfare and Character of the German People by the Jews , Fries maintained that the harm caused by Jews was such that they should be prohibited

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Doing the hokey-cokey

Everyday trajectories of activism

Hilary Pilkington

subcultural or direct-action movements linked to the extreme right rather than formal political parties (Mudde, 2014: 4). In this study too, almost three-quarters (74 per cent) of respondents were under 35 years of age (see Figure 3.1). While this might appear to confirm the youthfulness of the EDL suggested above, in fact young people were significantly less visible in the movement than expected and the achieved age distribution was driven by the focus of the larger MYPLACE project on youth activism and receptivity to radical political agendas (see the Introduction

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Alex J. Bellamy

nationwide democratic party focused on bringing together all nation-building forces in all layers and classes of society, from the radical right through the moderate position to the revolutionary left.17 Tuœman saw himself as the personification of Croatian unity – through him national cleavages would be overcome. He tried to foster that unity through his party. The HDZ was founded illegally in June 1989 and announced its first political programme in 1990. It announced that it would be a pan-Croatian movement that would mobilise the entire nation by unifying the diverse

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Tommy Robinson's barmy army?

The past, present and future of the English Defence League

Hilary Pilkington

-Jihad’ movement including the Pax Europe Citizens Movement, Stop Islamisation of Europe, and its American affiliate, and the formation and links with Defence Leagues11 in a number of north European and Nordic countries (Copsey, 2010: 24) has also suffered from the wider instability. While there remains a commitment to international collaboration, such links are on the back-burner until ‘we’ve got our own house in order’ (Eddowes, 2015). ‘Every single one of you is a leader’: organisation and structure Existing literature on radical, right wing and populist parties suggests

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Cas Mudde

primarily within the CDU/CSU or through non-party political movements (Jaschke 1994). In 1983 CSU leader Franz Josef Strauß supported a credit of over ten billion DM to the German Democratic Republic (GDR), in complete breach with the party’s long-term and radical opposition to any measures that might stabilise the GDR economy. Several members left the party in protest, among them two prominent Members of Parliament (MPs), Franz Handlos and Ekkehard Voigt. Together with Franz Schönhuber, a well-known Bavarian journalist, they founded a new political party on 17 November

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Introduction

Universalism and the Jewish question

Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

the dangers of antisemitism, that few in mainstream society still claim adherence to antisemitic ideologies, and that some ultra-nationalist movements are reluctant to embrace antisemitism. Liberals have paid tribute to the success of the new Europe in transcending ethnic nationalism and recognising rights of difference. Radicals have affirmed that many forms of racism still prevail in Europe but insist that antisemitism is no longer one of them. The

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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Thatcher nevertheless had an ability to take the ideas of others and was adept at combining them with populist attitudes into a formidable political project. Mrs Thatcher’s political astuteness, personal charisma, toughness of character and luck in the weakness of her opponents both within and outside the party produced a period of radical transformation of the British political and ideological landscape in favour of ‘New Right

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Cas Mudde

set up an independent party organisation and to make the VB less dependent upon the resources of its friendly movements. An official youth organisation, Vlaams Blok Jongeren (Flemish Block Youth, VBJ), was founded in 1987 by former prominent members of the NSV – notably Filip Dewinter and Frank Vanhecke. In April 1987 a group around Roger Frankinouille, co-chairman of the right-wing anti-tax party Respect voor Arbeid en Democratie (Respect for Labour and Democracy), switched to the VB, partly out of dissatisfaction with its Walloon sister party, and partly owing to

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Hilary Pilkington

in far right or populist radical right movements (in the same position the majority do not take this route), there is evidence from other studies that among young men who ‘drift’ in and out of right-wing politics, racism increases at particular stages of fragmentation and insecurity in both economic well-being and sense of identity (Cockburn, 2007: 551). How these feelings of social and economic exclusion (Chapter 6) and of cultural ‘othering’ (Chapter 5) are implicated in the activist routes taken by respondents in this study is explored in the following chapters