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Ideology, physical destruction, and memory
Rémi Korman

culture ethnic affiliation is patrilineal (ethnicity is ‘transmitted’ by the father). In the case of families where the father was a Tutsi, only the Hutu mother could hope to survive. Some women in this situation killed their own children, the latter now considered as ‘children of the enemy’. Conversely, many Hutu husbands were forced to kill their Tutsi wives by the militias in order to save their children. Nicknamed ‘Hutsi’, the latter have subsequently been torn by their dual status as the children of killers and the children of victims of the genocide.16 In some

in Destruction and human remains
John Borneman

affinity between melancholia, preserving the dead and belief in an absolute end, on the other. Each of these distinctions breaks down in any attempt to use them as the basis for a typology of types of societies. Cremation and preservation, for example, are often practised simultaneously in many societies. But as radical orientations and affinities, they are nonetheless a useful point of departure. Before moving to particular cases drawn from my own ethnographic work, let me begin with an unfashionable comparison of culture regions, and acknowledge the rough historical

in Governing the dead
Open Access (free)
Why exhume? Why identify?
Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

to carry much more meaning than their speakers at first seem to attribute. The specifically ethical issues raised by research on the fate of the victims of mass violence could also be articulated, although all the professionals involved in this research are in direct contact with human remains. For if handling such remains within cultural and research institutions is now largely framed by laws or administrative procedures in most Western countries, large-scale exhumations are still conducted that generate a set of unprecedented practices 8   Élisabeth Anstett and

in Human remains and identification
Olivier Thomas Kramsch

–1940. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Bigsby, C.W.E. (1972) Dada and Surrealism: The Critical Idiom. London: Methuen. Birchall, Clare (2011) ‘Introduction to “secrecy and transparency”: the politics of opacity and openness’, Theory, Culture & Society, 28: 7–8, 7–25. Bradley, Fiona (1997) Surrealism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brinkhuis, Alfons E. (1984) De fatale aanval, 22 februari 1944: de waarheid over de mysterieuze Amerikaanse bombardementen op Nijmegen, Arnhem, Enschede en Deventer. Weesp: Gooise Uitgeverij. Buck-Morss, Susan (1989

in Migrating borders and moving times
Integrative concepts for a criminology of mass violence
Jon Shute

coincidence of the moral neutralization techniques of delinquents with the reasoning of juvenile justice actors and the content of substantive legal defences – to posit cultures of denial: routinized and immersive habits of moral non-engagement with the suffering of often distant (non-western) peoples and nations. Second, Cohen refined the modes of bystander denial to three basic types and gave instances of transitions between them in contexts of mass violence: literal denial (‘it could not have happened’); interpretative denial (euphemistic relabelling of acknowledged acts

in Human remains and mass violence
Contested narratives of the independence struggle in postconfl ict Timor-Leste
Henri Myrttinen

between dead and living is thus not as categorical as in Western thought, and the dead are seen to have a very real degree of agency from beyond the grave. Hierarchies also exist among the dead with some ancestral spirits being more powerful than others, a potency that the living may tap into. Aside from looming large in the historical narratives of liberation and the official commemoration politics, the fallen heroes of the resistance, both against the Portuguese colonisers and the Indonesian occupation, are both politically and spiritually ‘potent dead’, to borrow a

in Governing the dead
Challenges and technological solutions to the ­identification of individuals in mass grave scenarios in the modern context
Gillian Fowler and Tim Thompson

reasons for identification may also exist. One of the consequences of the use of mass graves can be to further cause insult by effectively excluding the victims from their communities of death.4 Thus the primary factor governing the search and identification of victims of the armed conflict in Guatemala is to bury their loved ones in cemeteries reflecting the funerary practices of the indigenous culture, a religious blend of Catholic and Mayan rituals. The second key issue to be addressed is how these identifications are to be achieved. Technological solutions have in

in Human remains and identification
Joost Fontein

spirit possession was no longer an acceptable means of identifying and settling the dead, but a deliberate obfuscation of the ‘truth’ about the dead; a way as Eppel put it of ‘silencing the bones’.29 In response the FHT complained that Tsvangirai’s criticism of the exhumations was not ‘in defence of African culture’ and that he was ‘talking cheap politics’.30 Nevertheless the uncertain nature of the human materials being exhumed had changed the focus of the controversies, from the crude politicisation and ‘disrespectful’ nature of FHT practices, to much more sensitive

in Governing the dead
Open Access (free)
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
Michael McConnell

imagination and fantasy interacted with state ideol­ogy, to expose ‘people’s tendency to think outside, against, under­neath, and above it’. Such efforts do not attempt to discount or minimize the role of ideology in mass violence, but rather underscore that ideology is a part of culture and therefore remains linked with a longer continuity of mentalities which feed into it, justify it, and form its foundation.4 This argument works well for the subject of the German vision of the East. As Vejas Liulevicius has noted, a longer trajectory of German thought vis-à-vis Eastern

in Destruction and human remains
Open Access (free)
Borders, ticking clocks and timelessness among temporary labour migrants in Israel
Robin A. Harper and Hani Zubida

-imposed. The state may impose time constraints on migrants for access to society, restricting entry, exit and practices in daily life. The state may place similar constraints only on subjects who have circumscribed rights, such as prisoners and those in quarantine. However, unlike prisoners and those in quarantine, only migrants request (or escape from) this time subjugation at will. But even if time is different for TLM, which factors affect perceptions of time: timedelimited visas? Local time culture? Different seasons? Experiencing nostalgia and homesickness? Being far

in Migrating borders and moving times