since wise men, Dr Martin Mellerstadt 16 and others, would listen to him attentively, Mellerstadt often said
that there was so great a power of intelligence in that man, that he plainly
foresaw that he would change the common form of learning, which was the
only one being transmitted in the Schools at that time.
Here he ﬁrst commented on Aristotle’s Dialectic and Physics, yet all the while
not dropping that eagerness of his for reading Theological writings. After
three years he set out for Rome, because of controversy among the Monks,
Melanchthon on Luther
and within opposing Churches and
begun to question whether war and persecution should really be a
feature of religion. Although Christianity certainly underwent
change in this period, no antichristian religion or atheist
groundswell arose to challenge it. This is, of course, not to say that
atheism did not exist, but if it did, it remained a private matter and
texts written by atheists quickly gained infamy by the fact of their
rarity, and the same can be said of deism. The problem is that the
Enlightenment is famous for its challenge to the Church, and the
discussion on the cleavage between the Jewish majority and the Arab minority and in their place focus on the lesser aspects of the said cleavage.
1 Since the State’s establishment, there have been far-reaching changes in the Arab educational system, however, the system must still cope with formidable problems. Describe three key changes in the Arab educational system and explain their causes. What are the problems facing the Arab educational system in the 1980s?
2 Changes in the agricultural department of
‘defending democracy’, whereas the other three certainly have an important role in it. These are: social movements seeking to effect changes in society or on the state’s agenda; grassroots groups striving to influence their close environment and whose activities revolve around the community or neighbourhood; and, finally, volunteer associations consisting of citizens whose main objective is to help out and care for the welfare of their fellow men and women.
Debate on the notion of ‘civil society’ over the years has not been restricted to the
true that, rather than leaders and instigators of real change, the philosophes were observers (and not
unbiased commentators) of politico-religious struggles and transformations across late-seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe.
There have been some voices against the notion of a predominantly secular radical Enlightenment (see below) and a relatively
weak Church, amongst whom I wish to place myself. Nevertheless,
politico-religious conflicts have still been given insufficient weight
in the study of Enlightenment thought. That is to say a profound
State’s response to the manifestations of extremism (from political parties, extra-parliamentary and violent organisations, etc.), since its early days and up to the end of the twentieth century.
The foremost indication of the change in the State’s policy of response can be seen in the new legal and judicial barriers stipulating delimited frames of democratic tolerance, and the growing emphasis on political liberties. These have replaced, in most cases, the administrative barriers the State used in its first decades. Their primary objective was
An overview of the Catholic episcopate in early modern Europe comments that
‘one of the most far-reaching if usually under-remarked changes of the Reformation period as a whole concerns the function and necessity of bishops in the
church’.1 Although immediately applicable to those regions of the Reformation
where bishops disappeared altogether from the ecclesiastical and political landscapes, this observation might appear to have no relation to Catholic Europe.2
Here, bishops not only survived but also
I am not arguing that all that changed over this period was
the popularity of this or that kind of story. Real changes can be traced –
for example the profound shift in the status of the ‘expert’ in the eyes of
the court and of the public in the courtroom. 4 My point is that such changes can be traced
and largely explained through the changes in the stories the courts heard:
as the contrasting styles of the various witnesses’ narratives examined
The ‘defending democracy’ in Israel – a framework of analysis
can be just minimally effective because parties and movements have the ability to adapt and adjust themselves to changing circumstances. A movement which has been legally banned can occasionally assume various other guises by changing its name or the composition of its key activists, and, in the long run, can make things more difficult for the democracy.
In sum, using the theoretical constructs elaborated above, an attempt is made in this book to illustrate the changes in the response of the State of Israel to its internal adversaries in the
that although demonological
texts show signs of variation, they are stable enough to suggest that even
if later readers and printers thought of witches as specifically female,
they did not feel strongly enough about it to introduce changes in the
original masculine terminology of the Malleus . We addressed the issue
of language usage, illustrating that conceptual flexibility was built into
early modern witchcraft theory and