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Markets, supermarkets and the macro-social shaping of demand

An instituted economic process approach

Series:

Mark Harvey

its complementarity with the slave trade. Zuckerman (1999) chose the potato as an instrument for asking a somewhat different question from these studies, namely, how the potato was adopted differentially by national cuisines and class diets from the time it first crossed the Atlantic. Pilcher (1998) has explored how a distinctively mestizo cuisine developed from a cultural and colonial conflict between indigenous maize culture and European wheat culture in Mexico. My own research has adopted the tomato as its favoured empirical probe to analyse the transformations

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Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

Rules governing trading in raw cotton, or which may be informally and tacitly prescribed, as with the moral economy of preindustrial capitalism as described by E. P. Thompson (1971) or Polanyi (1944) in his discussion of the emergence of a market in waged labour. Moreover, operative rules in particular markets are themselves subject to a process of development. They can be expected to change as the volume of exchange increases and as a market develops from narrow niches to serve wider groups of consumers. They can be expected to change when innovations shift the

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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

generated new industrial and manufacturing classes and elites, and, most important for socialism, the modern industrial working class. Out of this working class arose trade unions, building societies, co-operatives, all influenced by socialism, the ideology of the working classes. industrialisation The process of developing increased output of manufactured goods by the

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Conclusion

Science and industrial development: lessons from Britain’s imperial past

Series:

Sabine Clarke

fully worked-out visions of industrial development that were created for the Caribbean were much more transformative, seeking to create a wider set of conditions that would allow industry to flourish, including incentives for private investors through tax relief, trading estates, subsidies, cheap factories and credit. While the architects of these alternatives did not reject the need for scientific research useful to business, they did not make provision for it. The vision of industrial development promoted by W. Arthur Lewis, and representatives from Puerto Rico, was

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Sabine Clarke

, rural development schemes are described as comprising a regime. Development represents an all-encompassing form of state power – authoritarian, intrusive and dealing in standardised and regimented units of production. For many scholars, the exemplar of the development project of the twentieth century is the large-scale African agrarian scheme in which communities were uprooted, resettled in new villages and made to work on uniform plots under close supervision, as in the Gezira cotton-growing project in British-controlled Sudan, the Sukumaland Scheme in Tanganyika

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Alastair J. Reid

, in one popular survey, Paul Adelman (1972: 87) outlined the work of a school of historians who emphasised the extent to which the Liberals’ political base had decayed before the outbreak of the First World War: Pelling, for example, has emphasized repeatedly the enormous importance of increasing trade union affiliations for future Labour development . . . Moreover, he stresses the importance of those more general social and economic factors – growing difficulties in basic industries like coal, for example, coupled with increasing geographical unity on the one hand

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John Marriott

-governed Countries, the first Care of the Governors hath been to make the Intercourse of the Inhabitants, as well as of Foreigners, sojourning in the Country, safe, easy and commodious, by open, free and regular Highways . This is more especially incumbent on Trading Nations, as, without a free and safe Intercourse between Place and Place by Land as well as

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The millers’ tales

Sustainability, the arts and the watermill

Jayne Elisabeth Archer, Howard Thomas and Richard Marggraf Turley

communities and cultures. We find that, just as much as the surrender of common ground to successive waves of enclosures, the loss of the watermill as a centre of food production – owned and operated by and for the community – marks a fault line, a profound trauma in British history. Industrialisation replaced the grain mill with the mills of manufacture – cotton, paper, wool, steel, as elegised by Richard Jefferies and celebrated by J. M. W. Turner (Jefferies 1880; Rodner 1997). The mill is a recurrent mystical symbol in the writings of William Blake and even has a walk

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John Marriott

, education, health, trade, labour and agriculture. 88 Despite continued anxieties about the information order, with political stabilization came a renewed sense of optimism about the future of colonial rule. During a sermon delivered at Westminster Abbey at the consecration of George Cotton as Bishop of Calcutta in 1858, the Rev. Vaughan declared that 1857 had given missions a political prominence that they

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Intensification

War, Debt, and Colonial Power

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Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

degrees of success, this institutional innovation was later adopted by other nations that remained free of colonial rule. It helped to mitigate (never totally solve) the scarcity of money problem that had so riddled England and much of the European continent in an era of colonial plunder, slavery, long-distance trade, and the exploitation of a new energy source, that is, coal. The perpetual debt became a way of permanently locking in the relationship between private creditors and the power of the state 48 Debt as Power to regulate commercial relations, tax its