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the work and commentary of influential and respected golf course superintendent Jeff Carlson, a leading advocate of organic golf. Although Carlson is not anti-chemical per se – contending as he has that measured inputs of inorganic chemicals at key moments may reduce the need for other environmentally damaging activities – he could certainly be viewed as a social movement entrepreneur in the sense that he is demonstrating what is possible when it comes to the upkeep of a highly playable golf course that

in The greening of golf
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1 Introduction How do Russian authorities go about implementing their international environmental obligations? This question, indicating the present book’s main topic of study, implies that implementation is here understood as the political processes taking place at the national, and possibly the sub-national, level after the conclusion of agreements or establishment of regimes at the international level. In the literature on international environmental agreements, processes at the domestic level are receiving increased attention.1 After an initial main focus

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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, oil and gas will thus determine climate strategies: companies with more emphasis on coal and oil are more likely to adopt a reactive climate strategy than companies with a larger relative emphasis on gas. Carbon intensity is explored in terms of core business areas, exploration and production volume as well as resource reserves. A company’s perceptions of risk is also linked to another key factor: its environmental reputation, including its experience with public exposure and criticism in relation to environmental incidents. Such criticism may damage the brand name

in Climate change and the oil industry
Global and local forms of resistance to golf course development

In the previous three chapters we illustrated how and why members of the golf industry changed their environment-related practices over time. We focused especially on the strategies industry members used to frame and promote their now dominant ‘light-green’ position. One of our key findings was that industry was especially effective in their attempts to position light-green responses to environmental problems as the ‘only’ reasonable responses to these problems and, in turn, to position golf

in The greening of golf

), Barbara Ward and Rene Dubos’s Only One Earth (1972), and United Nations conferences highlighted the environmental threats. A drumbeat of articles, books and television programmes throughout the 1980s and 1990s produced growing evidence of ozone damage, rising rates of species extinction, resource depletion, and the dangers to the biosphere of new forms of pollution. The emergence of these concerns

in Understanding political ideas and movements

economic activity with potentially harmful environmental consequences have the right to state their case in a permit proceeding. But in traditional Swedish legislation related to natural resources, legal standing in the sense of right to appear and right of appeal was offered only to those owning adjacent property. As for the Environmental Protection Act, legal standing in this sense was linked to those caused to suffer definable damage or some other inconvenience from environmentally harmful activities, not necessarily owning property. The Environmental Code establishes

in Sweden and ecological governance

, national imprints overlap with ExxonMobil’s market exposure in the US. North Americans express significant concern for the environment, but climate change is given little public attention compared to other environmental problems. Table 5.1 Percentage expressing ‘a great deal’ of concern in the US Issue Pollution of drinking water Pollution of rivers, lakes and reservoirs Contamination by toxic wastes Ocean and beach pollution Air pollution Contamination by radioactivity Loss of habitat for wildlife Damage to the ozone layer Loss of tropical rain forest Global warming

in Climate change and the oil industry

the reconfiguration of environmentally damaging landscapes such as manufacturing plants and landfills to make them more in touch with nature (see American Society of Golf Course Architects, n.d.). Indeed, in Chapter 6 we explore the golf industry’s simultaneous promotion of golf course management as a technological wonder and of golf courses themselves as pristine, natural spaces. In Canada, IPM is still positioned by the CGSA as a ‘sustainable approach’, one “combining biological, cultural

in The greening of golf
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is on ‘actual’ polluting activities, such as the dumping of waste; partly it is on the risk of accidents in connection with activities that do not result in contamination under normal circumstances. Moreover, in the area of nuclear safety, environmental and security concerns tend to be closely intertwined. As will be shown in this chapter, the complexity of the problem area itself tends to be mirrored both in the multitude of international efforts undertaken to address it and in the related implementation processes. Background: the ‘nuclear complex’ and

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace

D ID WATER SCARCITY precipitate the 1980s’ intifada – the violent conflict between the Palestinians and the Israelis? This difficult question is the type of issue with which environmental security researchers grapple. Obviously, violent conflict results from multiple factors, such as ethnic tension, failed deterrence, and misperception. The environmental

in Redefining security in the Middle East