and conformity; individualism and incorporation; static and dynamic; and, as Hobsbawm pointed out, losers and winners.
Hobsbawm recognised that extreme social conditions or political positions were not necessarily unbalanced or labile. Opposing forces – such as capitalism and communism during the Cold War – could be inherently stabilising, serving to preserve a precarious balance of power.
According to some post-war Western
decades, as countries begin to realise that structural reform will have to
be pursued even more strongly within their own borders. This could also
reduce the will to integrate further.
Today, for as long as it may last, no more general war in Europe
seems likely. Democracies tend not go to war unless they are attacked or
feel under intense threat. With democracies being the rule rather than the
exception in today’s Europe, there is good reason to hope that overall
peace inside the continent will prevail for some time, even though that
may not hold for military action by
, the Thatcher and Major governments were also motivated by a long-held desire of the British state to control NHS costs, and later initiatives built upon developments that took place before the 1980s.
Parliament and the Treasury had placed constant pressure on NHS budgets since 1948. Initial hopes that expenditure would decline as national health improved were dashed very quickly. Governments tried numerous strategies over the post-war period to control costs, ranging from the introduction of charges (most notably for prescriptions in the 1950s
left his post in 1963. These years, c. 1957–1965, stand
out as a comparatively distinct phase in West German post-war
history, a phase that can be separated from the preceding and ensuing
ones. ‘Dynamic times’ is a label given by historians to this period
of just under ten years.1
In spite of the growth and spread of prosperity, there was a
simmering discontent in many circles. One underlying cause was
the incomplete democratisation. True, the parliamentary system had
taken hold and been consolidated; but West German society was
not seen as entirely democratic. More
. Their intellectual and social success
depended on a reasonable knowledge of English. Kenneth James was
the pioneer of the TEFL [Teaching English as a Foreign Language]
unit, and succeeded in devising some instructive entertainments, the
Inspector Thackeray plays, whose fame spread beyond Manchester
when they were published by Longmans as ‘structural readers’ and
recorded on cassettes. Each piece contained three clues, ‘one obvious,
one less so and one hidden – in order to test comprehension and
Development of part-time, continuing, post
Practitioners (RCGP) incorporated diabetes care into projects of quality assurance and public health practice. Diabetes, in other words, became a disease more feasibly managed in general practice because of changes in the institutional environment, but it was also a disease around which general practice could be remade in ways consonant with broader professional projects.
Such endeavours cannot be divorced from post-war political and economic developments. The spectre of cost-control – and related calls for greater service integration and efficiency
Tavistock Clinic in London.
The notion of crisis carried wider resonance as a tool for articulating the anguish of ageing. Jaques's depiction of the ‘defensive fantasies’, embraced by middle-aged men in particular, to forestall the effects of growing old, figured strongly in post-war literary and cinematic treatments of love and loss around midlife.
In the novels of John Updike, Sloan Wilson, Simone de Beauvoir and Joseph Heller, or in Ingmar Bergman's film Scenes
-funded research would enable Britain’s Caribbean colonies to participate in the emerging ‘brave new synthetic world’, and in doing so these places would find their economic fortunes revived. 2
By exploring post-war visions of economic development for the British Caribbean colonies this work produces a rethinking of our wider understanding of the history of science and development in the twentieth century. Despite the rise of development as a universal ideal for the Global South and the emergence of development studies as a major scholarly field, we employ a narrative of past
interlocking nature of the self and the public was further reinforced by the added responsibility placed on individuals for their own well-being and public health more broadly during the latter part of the twentieth century.
Some of the ways in which ‘the public’ and the ‘self’ overlapped in post-war England can be observed in the public health approach to alcohol. There were tensions within alcohol policy between the supposed needs of the population and the individual, and the self and the public, but there were also ways in which these were mutually
richer to poorer members), but as host it had a strong interest in avoiding a breakdown in the negotiations. Other major net payers – the
Netherlands, Sweden, Austria – were not much relieved either, nor were
net receivers much disturbed. Spain, in the last night of talks, managed
to squeeze out an extra €3 billion from the EU’s structural and regional
funds, which in total would amount to over €200 billion for the six-year
period. (In a reform of how the funds should be distributed, the summit
decided that more should go to the very poorest regions in the EU, rather