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The bid for cooperation

for a while. He also launched a judicial persecution of financiers and revenue farmers to force them to return some of their profits to the regent. In other words, Noailles proceeded down a path already worn smooth by Colbert and others, hoping that, given time, he would shrink the debt and balance the budget. Perhaps he would have done, eventually, but in the near term he presided over a de facto, partial bankruptcy, not much different from the real thing.15 The parlements preferred almost anything to a declared bankruptcy and an outright repudiation of augmentations

in Louis XIV and the parlements
The economy of makeshifts in the early modern north

. One of the most obvious responses to life-cycle need was to vary household size or structure, a point raised in the conclusion to this volume. While most census-type listings confirm that the small nuclear family and its servants has consistently lain at the heart of English household structure, these snapshot pictures tell only a partial story.29 Over the life-cycle of a family, periods of short-term complexity were more common than census listings allow, and this observation has particular resonance when we look at the household structures of the poor. Thomas

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Towards a union or not?

depreciating country evaporates quickly, causing capital flight and reducing foreign investment. This factor is far more important today than in, say, the 1960s, when capital was much less internationally mobile. Another is that a country which is tempted to depreciate for reasons of competitive advantage is also likely to have a considerable government debt, much of it incurred in foreign currency and owed foreign lenders. Depreciations thus add to the public debt, providing a further disincentive to follow this path. In short, countries are much less prone to engage in

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)

local variant practices were broadly twofold. First, the poor law was incapable of making a significant dent in the misery of poverty and even inflicted new suffering of its own devising, particularly in the form of the mixed, general workhouse and the stringent application of settlement law. Second, developments at the end of the eighteenth century were guilty of contributing to the increase of poverty, by tending to draw greater numbers of people into the remit of the poor law in the short Introduction 3 term and by supporting demographic changes which would

in The poor in England 1700–1850

fundamentals of venal office necessarily exerted a powerful effect on the magistrates, in both the long and short term, eroding wealth and status. Venal office, which had anchored family wealth in the sense of imparting stability, became a different kind of anchor, pulling wealth down.48 In 1711, Councillor Joachim Descartes was nearing the end of his thirtyyear career in the Parlement of Rennes. He declared to his heirs that he had purchased his office for 90,000 livres in 1680 but that it had currently fallen to 45,000. This loss, which saddened him as a father, diminished his

in Louis XIV and the parlements
Charity and the economy of makeshifts in eighteenth-century Britain

schooling generally promised recipients and benefactors long-, rather than short-term benefits. If the trustees are taken at their word, the children learnt how to support themselves in useful trades in the future. In the meantime, their parents or ‘friends’ kept them, with occasional provision of food and some clothing to offset the expense. But it was not only a question of what the Welsh Charity School, or indeed other charities, supplied to the poor; as important is the matter of how this system of material benefits worked. What were the contexts in which all sorts of

in The poor in England 1700–1850

thus forced families to fill the gap. Alternatively, poor law officials may have consciously restricted welfare supplies to force families to step into the breach. Or the poor law may have found itself as a fallback to kinship action, coping with extreme problems or reacting to short-term changes of circumstance which overwhelmed the coping abilities of kinship networks. Some guidance on how we might read the situation is provided 210 The poor in England Table 7.4 Kinship density and poor relief spending in six West Riding communities, 1750–1820 Place Otley

in The poor in England 1700–1850

slow to adopt new marketing techniques or respond to consumer feedback with the result that Irish butter carried a mixed reputation on the British market. Cormac Ó Gráda concludes that Irish farmers ‘responded lackadaisically to the opportunities presented by the First World War’. 115 By the 1920s, any short-term gains won during the war dissipated. That decade saw a resumption of international competition between dairy producers as Irish farmers competed with new competitors. The introduction of refrigeration in the 1920s allowed New Zealand farmers to supply

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Life and opinions

he was twenty-eight. Special arrangements for ‘mature matriculation’, sometimes by examination and sometimes by interview alone, were made in order to accommodate candidates not equipped with the usual ‘A’ and ‘O’ level grades awarded by the usual public examining boards. In the fields of adult and continuing education, the University provided a great number of short courses, each lasting for a few weeks. Some of these led to certificates, but many were taken for interest and enlightenment alone, and some produced other kinds of result – for example, in successful

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Open Access (free)

for the benefit of researchers on short-term contracts in the Faculties of Medicine and Science. Their position was becoming doubly precarious as the supply of lectureships dried up, and they longed for established posts and a recognised career structure. They now had their own professional body, ARMS, the Association of Researchers in Medicine and Science. Their local branch chairman, Dr Allison Keys, in the Department of Surgery, wrote in July 1983 that the previous year the Faculty of Medicine had contained 122 full-time and 12 part-time research staff on short-term

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90