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discussion of levels of administration below, several distinctions should be kept in mind. One is between direct administration, which is generally the “own” administration (Bundeseigene, Landeseigene Verwaltung) by state agencies discussed above in Chapter 2 on the constitutional framework – for example, the federal crime office or air controllers; and indirect administration, which includes the “delegated” administration – for example, federal highway administration delegated to the Länder or the federal health insurance program delegated to regional sickness funds. At

in The Länder and German federalism
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the IAEA regime, a comprehensive framework for international co-operation on nuclear safety has been set up. The agency has worked out a detailed set of internationally recognised safety norms and standards (Nuclear Safety Standards – NUSS), which are continuously reviewed and updated. The IAEA’s International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is used to classify nuclear events and accidents according to seriousness. Upon request, the IAEA sends advisory and review teams to member states to observe and help improve safety standards and activities. Within the IAEA regime

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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Deciphering power in Russia

authoritarian political approach under Putin’s leadership, even a shift from an oligarchy to a ‘KGB-’ or ‘mafia-state’, in effect creating what some have called a ‘militocracy paradigm’ as the main framework for understanding Russian politics which underpins the de-democratisation thesis. 11 Elaborating on this broad canvas of balances between formal structures and informal rules

in The new politics of Russia

3 The sports policy subsystem Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) proves a useful starting point for those wishing to conceptualise the EU as comprising a myriad of policy subsystems. Operating within these subsystems is a wide range of actors who attempt to steer policy in a direction compatible with their belief system. Sabatier’s broad concept of subsystem actors stresses the political nature of subsystem activity. Sabatier defines a policy subsystem as a ‘set of actors who are involved in dealing with a policy problem’ (Sabatier 1988: 138). The

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

to depend on more than just trained professionals with good character, also requiring effective distribution and combination of staff as well as access to up-to-date facilities and treatments. For the most part, however, these criticisms left the existing framework of regulation alone. Despite dissatisfaction with elements of medical education, critics trusted the system to produce practitioners whose clinical judgements could be relied upon. 18 Later criticisms, by contrast, focused upon questions of knowledge and performance at the heart of

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

to read the documents and the public authorities are forbidden to make them public. Official documents other than the following ones listed in the Freedom of Press Act may not be kept secret in order to protect interests: • Sweden’s national security and foreign relations; • Sweden’s central financial, monetary and foreign exchange policy; • public authorities’ inspection, control or other supervisory activities; • prevention and prosecution of crime; • Sweden’s public economic interest; • protection of individuals’ personal integrity or economic conditions

in Sweden and ecological governance
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Crisis, reform and recovery

would eventually bail them out if they got into trouble, even in the absence of explicit government guarantees. As Krugman (1998) observes, when government actions suggest that there is an explicit guarantee against either bank or corporate failure, such implicit guarantees can trigger asset price inflation and make the financial system vulnerable to collapse. And, third, the failure to develop simultaneously the necessary prudential supervisory, regulatory and legal framework (and enforce what regulation did exist) made Indonesia highly susceptible to a system

in The Asian financial crisis

process of elaborating a new constitution was embarked upon already in 1990, but it was only with the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Russian Federation that the need for a new basic legal framework became urgent. Various drafts were presented during 1992 and the first half of 1993. Two of these became the object of serious discussion, one produced by President Yeltsin and one by the Constitutional Committee. As was to be expected, the President’s proposal prescribed a strong presidential rule, while that of the Constitutional Committee

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression

Authority. In 1953, an outline for a European Political Community (EPC) was presented. It proposed that, following a transition period, the institutions of the ECSC and the proposed EDC be merged within a new framework. One European Executive would be answerable before a European Parliament (to consist of a Peoples’ Chamber elected by direct universal suffrage and a Senate appointed by national parliaments). Finally, one Council of Ministers and one European Court would replace the corresponding bodies created under the ECSC and EDC treaties. The European Movement seemed

in Destination Europe
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The daily work of Erich Muhsfeldt, chief of the crematorium at Majdanek concentration and extermination camp, 1942–44

its protagonists and social dynamics, that deserves our attention in all its complexity and presumed normalcy, for it points us towards the social practices of concentration camp supervisory staff, the ambiguity of their actions, and the production and organization of social norms. For this purpose, an everyday historical approach is useful because it no longer focuses on the elites,10 but rather on the everyday work of ‘normal’ perpetrators in terms of a history of experience. In our case this group is the subordinate SS staff 11 of the Majdanek concentration and

in Destruction and human remains