safety’ (468). The conditions of the
sailors’ landing similarly suggest the peacefulness of the society:
they are asked to swear that they ‘are no pirates’ and that they
have not ‘shed blood lawfully or unlawfully within forty days
past’ (459). The island itself is Christian (the sailors’ first question
to the Governor of the Strangers’ House is how the conversion
took place), but free of the confessional division that rent contemporary Europe. Moreover, freedom of worship is extended to
the Jews, who were expelled from England in 1290 (though the
narrator is careful
), pp. 311–34.
3 Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, ‘De-centring the “big picture”:
The Origins of Modern Science and the modern origins of science’, British
Journal for the History of Science, 26 (1993), 407–32.
4 Denise Albanese, ‘The New Atlantis and the uses of utopia’, English
Literary History, 57 (1990), 503–28 (p. 506).
5 David Renaker, ‘A miracle of engineering: the conversion of Bensalem in
Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis’, Studies in Philology, 87 (1990), 181–93 (p.
182). See also Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Social Context of Innovation:
, simultaneously inscribes a formative narrative of the Igbo community, interrogates his father’s legacy of
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Stories of women
Christian conversion and Nigeria’s post-independence history, and, in so
doing, secures his status as a national writer.
It is of course true that, from the time of the late eighteenth-century revolutions, nationalism across the world developed alongside, indeed often as indistinguishable from, liberation movements in support of equal representation
: The Poetics of Conversion (Cambridge,
John Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe (New York, 1994),
ch. 3. A. H. Krappe suggested that ‘twin saints’ are a Christian substitute
for pagan twin-god cults such as that of Castor and Pollux; they are ‘twin
legends in hagiographic garb’: ‘The legend of Amicus and Amelius’,
Modern Language Review, 18 (1929), 152–61.
Amis and Amiloun, ed. Leach, pp. ix, xxvii, xxvi.
Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale (Austin, Texas, 1975), p. 100;
italics in original.
A case in point for early hagiography borrowing
Jayne Elisabeth Archer, Howard Thomas and Richard Marggraf Turley
Lincolnshire, on the river Trent. In the novel, Eliot carefully documents
the way in which the flood is the result of the failure in river management. The destructiveness of the flood is shown to be a consequence of
the emergence of mills (paper, cotton, oil and iron mills) upstream, the
conversion of arable land into meadow and pasture, and because grain
mills such as Dorlcote are purchased by the likes of Pivart, a ‘new name’.
The Tullivers owned Dorlcote Mill ‘a hundred year and better’ (Eliot 2010:
174); new names, it is evident, do not have the knowledge, passed down
of the politics of the representation and reception of key Native Americans who
visited Britain from the early sixteenth century onwards. The most famous
of these ﬁgures was Pocahontas who converted to Christianity, married an
Englishman and died and was buried in England.25
Pocahontas’s ‘conversion’ from Indian into the Europeanised wife of an
Englishman was more dramatic than Emma Hardinge Britten’s transformation into the wife of an American man. None the less, Britten struggled
with the implications of her choice. A signiﬁcant narrative
, strict laws about
intermarriage with other faiths, and a historical interdiction
9/6/04, 4:06 pm
Contexts and intertexts 9
against accepting conversions, the number of Zoroastrians is in
slow but steady decline. It has been estimated that, at most,
there are only 150,000 Zoroastrians left in the world today.12 Of
the remaining Zoroastrians, the majority lives in India, and it is
this community that has become known as the Parsis.
The Parsis are mainly based in and around Bombay. The
community is composed of the descendants of a group of
splendid work of mercy.39
A month later, the Daily Telegraph reported that the initial scheme
had been postponed in favour of another – the refurbishment and conversion of the Star and Garter Hotel in Richmond, Surrey, into a home
for permanently disabled soldiers and sailors.40 The British Women’s
Hospital and the AFL organised a procession to advertise the first public
meeting of the fund. Women marched with banners, posters and sandwich boards through the West End, accompanied by a number of smaller
supporting groups, including an all-female band in uniform from the
, which address mothers and young women who have – through ignorance, neglect, or intent – killed their children. While these religious texts and authors decry such acwell[ende] (killing) or homicidum (murder), Rudolf associates these ‘infanticide practices’ with ‘the issue of child abandonment’, and he suggests that such homiletic denouncements ‘could indeed suggest the survival of a persistent practice in Anglo-Saxon England, even after the widespread conversion to Christianity … [w]hether it was established pagan custom, shame of illicit unions, patriarchal bias
Troubling race, ethnicity, and masculinity in Beowulf
See also Alfred K. Siewers, ‘Landscapes of conversion: Guthlac's mound and Grendel's mere as expressions of Anglo-Saxon nation-building’, Viator , 34 (2003), 1–39.
Harris, Race and ethnicity , p. 12; Andy Orchard, Pride and prodigies: studies in the monsters of the Beowulf-manuscript (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1995), pp. 87–8.