Robert Boyce

attack had long been anticipated but not the location of its Schwerpunkt nor its massive armoured follow-through. French forces that had advanced into Belgium were cut off and obliged to surrender. The rest of the army was thrown back in disarray, the British expeditionary force was hastily withdrawn to Dunkirk, and within six weeks the Battle of France had turned into a rout. The President of the Council, Paul Reynaud, resigned on 16 June, handing over 161 Robert Boyce to Pétain, the First World War hero and recently appointed Vice-President, who immediately

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

needed if diplomacy with the Soviet Union failed, launching a propaganda drive to rebut Soviet propaganda that continuously condemned British foreign and defence policy, and completing the North Atlantic Treaty negotiations as a matter of urgency.88 On 4 March 1947 Britain had signed the Treaty of Dunkirk, a defensive pact with France against an attack from Germany. This was enlarged on 17 March 1948 with the Treaty of Brussels, signed by Britain, France and the Benelux countries, committing them to collective defence against any armed attack for fifty years. Part of

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

unable to console herself with thoughts of ‘the Flag’ or religion, in an atmosphere ‘of bandages and blood’. As time elapsed and she saw more of the war’s effects via her work with Dr Hector Martin’s Flying Ambulance Corps near Dunkirk and St Malo, she found that her previously firm views on soldiering and warfare were now wavering. ‘All my previous ideas of men marching to war have had a touch of heroism, crudely expressed by quick-step and smart uniform’, she wrote after a visit to the shattered town of Furnes, ‘Today I see tired dusty men, very hungry looking and

in A war of individuals
Open Access (free)
Robert Mackay

sport under the exigencies of war. For a sporting nation like the British, this was just one more way in which the war threatened to wear down the Dunkirk spirit and to nibble away at civilian morale. Working and not working As it happened, the effect of restrictions on leisure was less than it might have been. For a sizeable proportion of the civilian population there was in reality very little time for leisure activity at all. If it meant nothing else, total war meant work – work for every available pair of hands. By 1941 the drafting of young men into the armed

in Half the battle
Political and contemporary contexts of the Shows
Tracey Hill

enemies’ (Lord Mayors’ Pageants, vol. II, p. 185). Earlier that year Christopher Clitheroe (the Lord Mayor in 1635) made a speech to Parliament about the dangers of Dunkirk privateers (see Thrush, Oxford DNB, ‘Clitherow, Sir Christopher’). See Kellett, ‘The breakdown of gild and corporation control’, pp. 382–4. ‘Foreigners’ were non-free inhabitants of the City; ‘aliens’ or ‘strangers’ were the terms used for those from overseas in this period. See Hardin, ‘Spectacular Constructions’, p. 76. Brenner writes that the Merchant Adventurers ‘at the turn of the seventeenth

in Pageantry and power