Structuring self-made offers and demands
Andreas Maurer and Wolfgang Wessels

Jahren Mitentscheidung’, in Integration, No. 4/1998, pp. 212–224. See Wolfgang Wessels and Udo Diedrichs, ‘The European Parliament and EU Legitimacy’, in: Thomas Banchoff and Mitchell P. Smith (eds), Legitimacy and the European Union. The Contested Polity (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 134–135. See Andreas Maurer, ‘National Parliaments in the European Architecture: From Latecomers’ Adaptation towards Permanent Institutional Change?’, in: Andreas Maurer and Wolfgang Wessels (eds), National Parliaments on their Ways to Europe: Losers or Latecomers? (Baden-Baden: Nomos

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Simon Mabon

the global nomos. The sectarianisation of political life Amid the contestation of sovereign power, regimes have sought to ensure their survival by closing off a community against an outside, increasingly done along sect-​based lines. Parallels can be drawn across the region as regimes sought to solidify their support bases by creating existential fears about the other. In such conditions, political life took on a sectarian dimension while also becoming imbued with geopolitical meaning. By framing opposition groups as an existential threat to the very survival of

in Houses built on sand
Arthur B. Gunlicks

and large city Finance and customs Federal railways Postal services (5) Municipal (subcountry) Military draft administration County Zweckverband County County-free cities Public law agreement Figure 3.2 Structure of administration in the Federal Republic of Germany Source: Adapted from Frido Wagener, “Äusserer Aufbau von Staat und Verwaltung,” in Öffentliche Verwaltung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, edited by Klaus König, H. J. von Oertzen, and Frido Wagener (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1981), p. 80. Page 86 (3) Regional chap 3 27

in The Länder and German federalism
Security and complex political emergencies instead of development
Gorm Rye Olsen

chapter was obtained via personal interviews carried out in Brussels in November and December 1999. Because of requests for anonymity, these are only indicated by the date of the interview involved. 97 EUD5 10/28/03 3:13 PM Page 98 Gorm Rye Olsen Bibliography Brüne, S. (1995), Die Französische Afrikapolitik. Hegemonialinteressen und Entwicklungsanspruch, Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verlangsgesellschaft. Cafruny, A. and P. Peters (eds) (1998), The Union and the World: Economy of a Common European Foreign Policy, The Hague: Kluwer Law International. Cardoso, F. J., W. Khüne

in EU development cooperation
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Domestic change through European integration
Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack, and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann

Landesbericht’, in: Jürgen Schwarze (ed.), Das Verwaltungsrecht unter europäischem Einfluss (Baden-Baden: Nomos), pp. 733–785. 2444Ch14 3/12/02 354 2:05 pm Page 354 Member States and the European Union Puntscher-Riekmann, Sonja (1999) ‘The Politics of Ausgrenzung, The Nazi-Past and the European Dimension of the New Radical Right in Austria’, in: Günter Bischof, Anton Pelinka and Ferdinand Karlhofer (eds), The Vranitzky Era in Austria (New Brunswick, London: Transaction Books), pp. 78–105. Tálos, Emmerich and Falkner, Gerda (eds), EU-Mitglied Österreich. Gegenwart und

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Hampton and Soe, Between Bonn and Berlin, pp. 119–136. 17 Gudrun Heinrich, “Der kleine Koalitionspartner in den Ländern: Koalitionsstrategien von F.D.P. und Bündnis 90/Die Grünen im Vergleich,” in Hinter den Kulissen von Regierungsbündnissen: Koalitionspolitik in Bund, Ländern und Gemeinden, edited by Roland Sturm und Sabine Kropp (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1999), p. 123. 18 Ibid. 19 Braunthal, Parties and Politics, Ch 7; Andrei S. Markovits and Philip S. Gorski, The German Left: Red, Green and Beyond (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), Ch. 8; E

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Christian Franck, Hervé Leclercq, and Claire Vandevievere

and Wolfgang Wessels (eds), The European Union and Member States, Towards Institutional Fusion? (Manchester: Manchester University Press), pp. 37–60. 2444Ch3 3/12/02 Belgium 2:02 pm Page 91 91 Dierickx, Guido (1998) ‘De Euro-Belgische ambtenaren. En paradoxale prestatie’, in: Res Publica, No. 2/1998, pp. 219–222. Franck, Christian (1997) ‘La Belgique’, in: Rudolf Hrbek (ed.), Die Reform der Europäischen Union, Positionen und Perspektiven anläßlich der Regierungskonferenz (Baden-Baden: Nomos), pp. 37–50. Franck, Christian (1998) ‘La politique européenne de la

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Simon Mabon

structures that have suppressed or eliminated organised social and political actors capable of turning the crisis of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes to their advantage’.49 While it is correct not to reduce the democratic deficit to purely cultural factors, we should not dismiss the importance of history and values in defining contingency and shaping the decisions taken by those in power.50 Indeed, as the Executive Summary suggests –​acknowledging the power of the nomos, nomoi and norms –​‘freedoms in Arab countries are threatened by two kinds of power: that of

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The emergence of a new major actor in the European arena
Felipe Basabe Lloréns

: Política Exterior, No. 47/1995, pp. 38–46. 17 See Angel Boixareu Carrera, ‘Aspectos generales y principios básicos de la Unión. Subsidiariedad y suficiencia de medios’, in: VV.AA., 1994, op. cit., pp. 55–86. 18 See Araceli Mangas Martín, ‘Le droit constitutionnel national et l’intégration européenne: Espagne’, in: Jürgen Schwarze (ed.), XVII FIDE Kongress (Berlin, October 1996) – Ergebnisse und Perspektiven (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1997), pp. 206–230. 19 Spain’s entry into the Union coincided with the negotiation and enforcement of the SEA, hence the immediate implementation

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The European transformation of the French model
Andrea Szukala

/1996. Eurobarometer, No. 46, Luxembourg 1997. See Andrea Szukala, ‘Frankreich’, in: Rudolf Hrbek (ed.), Die Reform der 2444Ch9 3/12/02 242 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 2:04 pm Page 242 Member States and the European Union Europäischen Union. Perspektiven und Positionen anläßlich der Regierungskonferenz (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1996), pp. 80 ff. There are four French right-wing groups in the EP, of which some or all members are explicitly anti-Europeans: two RPR-Gaullists in the I-EDNgroup, Mouvement pour la France (MPF), Majorité pour l

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