American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

very notion of the nursing of strangers, in hospitals and in homes, by women specially educated for the work challenged fundamental aspects of Puerto Rican social and class structure. The nature of the nursing work, the professional standards for education and behaviour and the instruction in English, all coalesced for these nursing students as they became model Americanised citizens of the new, modern Puerto Rico. Indeed, in a history of nursing in Puerto Rico the introduction of American culture that came with the US occupation is credited with completely changing

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)

in Alonzo Earl Foringer’s poster of a huge Madonna cradling a helpless child-sized wounded soldier, which was published by the American Red Cross at Christmas 1918.25 In examining the writings of nurses, I  have been influenced by authors such as Jane Schultz, whose work on American Civil War nursing has transformed our perceptions of the influence of female identity on nursing work;26 Santanu Das, whose incisive analysis of the interplay between nurses’ personal trauma and their wartime writings has deepened our understanding of the work of female modernists;27

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
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whose memoir of her time as a VAD nurse was published in 1918 as Diary Without Dates. 146 A war of individuals At the outbreak of war, Bagnold volunteered for nursing work and found herself at the Royal Herbert Hospital, Woolwich, where she found herself greatly affected by the wounded men’s attitudes towards life as a result of their involvement in the war. She found they had become, ‘careless of life … of all the whims and personalities and desires that go to make up existence’, and to her they seemed ‘new-born’ from the fire of their experience, their

in A war of individuals