Open Access (free)
War economies, peace economies and transformation
Jenny H. Peterson

economies in conflict-affected states. As the methods and politics of war economy transformation are assessed, what becomes apparent is that current transformation attempts have become both illustrative of and central to the liberal peacebuilding agenda. This agenda, led by international development and security actors, has the ultimate goal of constructing liberal peaces from the vestiges of what they define as weak, failed and collapsed states. It is in the dominance of the liberal peacebuilding agenda that the broader explanation for the failure of transformation

in Building a peace economy?
From conflict transformation to crisis management
Kari M. Osland and Mateja Peter

Introduction While much of the EU peacebuilding capacities and mechanisms are relatively new, the EU has acted as a crisis response actor in the Western Balkans since the mid-1990s. 1 This region, now part of the enlargement area, has long been an incubator and a test ground for the EU peacebuilding toolkit. The Western Balkans is the region where the EU has not only

in The EU and crisis response
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

2 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance: a view from below T What is everyday resistance? he informalities, ambiguities and contradictions that peacebuilding runs into reflect the political nature of the process. These become visible when examined from the everyday practices of the actors involved. In IR the everyday has become synonymous with the makings of actual subjects in their most quotidian roles (Autesserre 2014; Hobson and Seabrooke 2007; Mitchell 2011b; Neumann 2002). This is not so much a new field of study, as it represents a common call

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

holistic and structured manner. T 43 4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 44 Building a peace economy? Ideological projects and processes: the impact of liberalism The development-security industry, both in terms of its response to war economies specifically and development and peacebuilding more generally, can be characterised as resting on distinctly liberal foundations. Liberal dominance in these fields has been accelerated and solidified since the end of the Cold War when the primary alternative collapsed, leaving a largely unipolar or

in Building a peace economy?
DSI approaches and behaviours
Jenny H. Peterson

understand the barriers and opportunities for building peace economies, one must address three interdependent processes. The limitations of war economy policy can be explained by examining the ideological foundations of the liberal peacebuilding project, conceptual lenses through which the problem is understood and the degree to which this is implemented in programming, as well as the operational characteristics of the DSI. By exploring these related characteristics of the aid industry, one finds that whilst the critiques of liberal peacebuilding do hold in many instances

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYRM) and organised crime (Özerdem, 2003: 94). Interviews with officials at the office of the KPCC also suggest that since then, accusations of misconduct by its members have been dealt with swiftly and severely. This points to the need for greater analysis of the dilemmas which the DSI is forced to consider over the long course of peacebuilding missions. In the case of Kosovo, at least at the beginning of the mission, the trade-off was clearly one of stability over transforming politicaleconomic relationships. In the

in Building a peace economy?
Current policy options and issues
Jenny H. Peterson

activity can be integrated more effectively into peacebuilding strategies. Andreas’s research on the Arizona market in Bosnia, a hub of illicit trade during and after the war, supports such reconceptualisations, noting that in Bosnia, ‘in the immediate postwar era, the ability to overcome ethnic divides was arguably nowhere more advanced than in the clandestine economy’ (2008: 133). Another collection of studies (Pugh, Cooper and Turner, 2011) also goes some way towards bringing together a range of studies with the aim of thinking more broadly about conflict

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies
Jenny H. Peterson

locked in negotiations aimed at not only reviving activities across the complex, but also ensuring this is done in a fair and transparent manner (Smith, 2009). The centrality of the market: liberal peacebuilding and the push for privatisation Since the end of the Cold War, developed and developing nations alike have undergone a deepening of privatisation, with this reform also being a central policy prescription in post-communist and post-socialist states. Indeed, privatisation has been a favoured tool of intervention in transitioning states as international

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

Kosovan-led customs service. As this occurred we saw the resurfacing of ethnic tensions, with Serbs not recognising the new KC service. As noted, when the government accused Serbian security and customs agents of not implementing customs controls, they attempted to ‘retake’ these crossings, resulting in violence and a renewal of international executive control mechanisms. In this case, there has been a regression in terms of peacebuilding and transformation, with what some might classify as a return to the 1999 status quo at the northern border. In relation to this, we

in Building a peace economy?
The forensic and political lives of secondary mass graves in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Admir Jugo and Sari Wastell

’s secondary mass graves in the country’s processes of social reconciliation and peace-building. A definition of the mass grave Over the course of time, ever since the first excavations of mass graves, there have always been attempts at defining what constitutes a mass grave. Currently, there are several definitions and typologies of mass graves that have been put forward. Some of these definitions are based solely on the minimum number of bodies buried, while others try to define a mass grave not only by the number of bodies buried, but by the processes of creation and

in Human remains and identification