for schools, public housing, airports, parks, sewerage, publictransport,
etc., and the French prefectures or German cities and counties in which
virtually all public activities are the administrative responsibility of the
local general purpose executives.
“Participatory federalism” is another term frequently applied to Germany. This refers to the participation by the Länder in federal legislation,
that is, national policy making. This occurs informally through a variety
of committees and conferences, such as the conference of Land prime
on whether one was willing or able to get there on
foot, so sparse were transport services on Sundays. Again, what
might have been tolerated as an minor inconvenience had it been
for a short time became a wearisome part of existence when it
dragged on through the six years of war.
The 10 per cent of families fortunate enough to own a car might
in theory have been spared the miseries of publictransport. However, petrol was rationed for the private motorist at the outbreak of
war: just four gallons a month for the smallest car, ten for the largest, with
Eileen Martin, Emma McKenna, Henk Mulder, and Norbert Steinhaus
questions (such as, for example, the issue of local air quality) were the
key elements of this EC call. The call was widely publicized by the network and a
total of twenty-seven eligible applications were received, indicating the strength
and diversity of the science shop movement, with four projects eventually being
funded. These dealt with health effects of noise from wind turbines; cycling and
air pollution; optimizing publictransport for the elderly; and mental health care
for immigrant communities. Even where these applications were unsuccessful,
must be honed to care with proficiency. Accordingly, the contention here is that despite its extemporaneous appearance, one can indeed rehearse for improvisational care. For example, when I take publictransport, I never know what experience will manifest from the close proximity to others. I have variously experienced individuals yelling, weeping quietly, requesting money, engaging in pleasant conversation, etc. I cannot prepare myself to be caring for every expressed need that arises from engaging another human being. However, I can prepare or rehearse an
Locating the monsters in the machine: an investigation of faith
Roda Madziva and Vivien Lowndes
people’s faith technically,
while at the same time assuming it must be coherent and have Western
or European reference points. As one male asylum seeker told us:
In my interview, I was asked questions like … How do you celebrate
Christmas? How do you celebrate Easter? … and many other questions.
Science and the politics of openness
I have now learnt that Christmas is a big event in this country not only
for Christians but for everyone. It’s regarded as a family day, no publictransport because everyone is celebrating Christmas with their family.
But this is not
government operations, health care and publictransport. The question was, could the same principle be applied in the field
In order to do so it would almost certainly be necessary to privatise schools in
some way, but this would destroy the principle of free education for all
children. The proposed answer was the so-called voucher system. Each parent
would be given a voucher for the education of each child. This would be
enough to pay for a standard form of schooling. However, parents with spare
Understanding British and European political issues
to think about what a visual-pollution-free dense urban space might look like.
Walking through this urban jungle was not easy; most paulistanos (a term used
to describe São Paulo’s residents), drive or use publictransport (which is mainly
determined by their economic status) as the city is spread over a vast area.
Driving gives a completely different sensorial experience of the city. Performing
this urban sensory ethnography was a way to understand how people sense the
space, and more importantly, to explore if the removal of visual pollution had
in the major cities and
their suburbs, in which roads are now often gridlocked, publictransport
unable to cope, schools oversubscribed and houses unaffordable for
young first-time buyers.17 Alarmingly, 20 per cent of the Irish population still exist below the poverty line.18 Opposition parties made much
of this social and economic imbalance during the May 2007 election,
yet still lost.
What came to be seen as the Robinson era witnessed also major
changes in social legislation, particularly in relation to the politics of
sexual relations and reproductive practices
Omnibus literature and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris
publictransport and popular culture, and thus the relationship between mass transit and mass entertainment.
Les omnibus, ou la revue en voiture was one among many works of popular literature that embraced the new form of mass transit as an archetypal modern subject that embodied many of the features of this very literature. An astonishing number of cultural documents published across the nineteenth century explored different aspects of the omnibus experience. These included a broad range of works of urban observation, literary guidebooks, 3 short stories
functioned in complicity with it, participating in the abuse of those who were more vulnerable (Stallybrass and White 1986 : 9). The idea of the carnivalesque and its relevance to marketplace interactions very practically influenced the way I thought about the selection and definition of research sites in this project. The festive laughter of my market sites spread out along the pavements of the city centre and onto the main forms of publictransport that carried my vendor participants and their merchandise to and from work. It also infiltrated different contexts, in