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The German model of federalism
Arthur B. Gunlicks

districts responsible for schools, public housing, airports, parks, sewerage, public transport, etc., and the French prefectures or German cities and counties in which virtually all public activities are the administrative responsibility of the local general purpose executives. “Participatory federalism” is another term frequently applied to Germany. This refers to the participation by the Länder in federal legislation, that is, national policy making. This occurs informally through a variety of committees and conferences, such as the conference of Land prime ministers

in The Länder and German federalism
Open Access (free)
Robert Mackay

on whether one was willing or able to get there on foot, so sparse were transport services on Sundays. Again, what might have been tolerated as an minor inconvenience had it been for a short time became a wearisome part of existence when it dragged on through the six years of war. The 10 per cent of families fortunate enough to own a car might in theory have been spared the miseries of public transport. However, petrol was rationed for the private motorist at the outbreak of war: just four gallons a month for the smallest car, ten for the largest, with

in Half the battle
Science shops and policy development
Eileen Martin, Emma McKenna, Henk Mulder, and Norbert Steinhaus

questions (such as, for example, the issue of local air quality) were the key elements of this EC call. The call was widely publicized by the network and a total of twenty-seven eligible applications were received, indicating the strength and diversity of the science shop movement, with four projects eventually being funded. These dealt with health effects of noise from wind turbines; cycling and air pollution; optimizing public transport for the elderly; and mental health care for immigrant communities. Even where these applications were unsuccessful, productive networks

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Can performance care?
Maurice Hamington

must be honed to care with proficiency. Accordingly, the contention here is that despite its extemporaneous appearance, one can indeed rehearse for improvisational care. For example, when I take public transport, I never know what experience will manifest from the close proximity to others. I have variously experienced individuals yelling, weeping quietly, requesting money, engaging in pleasant conversation, etc. I cannot prepare myself to be caring for every expressed need that arises from engaging another human being. However, I can prepare or rehearse an

in Performing care
Locating the monsters in the machine: an investigation of faith
Roda Madziva and Vivien Lowndes

people’s faith technically, while at the same time assuming it must be coherent and have Western or European reference points. As one male asylum seeker told us: In my interview, I was asked questions like … How do you celebrate Christmas? How do you celebrate Easter? … and many other questions. 84 Science and the politics of openness I have now learnt that Christmas is a big event in this country not only for Christians but for everyone. It’s regarded as a family day, no public transport because everyone is celebrating Christmas with their family. But this is not

in Science and the politics of openness
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

government operations, health care and public transport. The question was, could the same principle be applied in the field of education? In order to do so it would almost certainly be necessary to privatise schools in some way, but this would destroy the principle of free education for all children. The proposed answer was the so-called voucher system. Each parent would be given a voucher for the education of each child. This would be enough to pay for a standard form of schooling. However, parents with spare 60 Understanding British and European political issues

in Understanding British and European political issues
The “Clean City” law in São Paulo, Brazil
Marina Da Silva

therefore important to think about what a visual-­pollution-­free dense urban space might look like. Walking through this urban jungle was not easy; most paulistanos (a term used to describe São Paulo’s residents), drive or use public transport (which is mainly determined by their economic status) as the city is spread over a vast area. Driving gives a completely different sensorial experience of the city. Performing this urban sensory ethnography was a way to understand how people sense the space, and more importantly, to explore if the removal of visual pollution had

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

in the major cities and their suburbs, in which roads are now often gridlocked, public transport unable to cope, schools oversubscribed and houses unaffordable for young first-time buyers.17 Alarmingly, 20 per cent of the Irish population still exist below the poverty line.18 Opposition parties made much of this social and economic imbalance during the May 2007 election, yet still lost. What came to be seen as the Robinson era witnessed also major changes in social legislation, particularly in relation to the politics of sexual relations and reproductive practices

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Omnibus literature and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris
Masha Belenky

public transport and popular culture, and thus the relationship between mass transit and mass entertainment. Les omnibus, ou la revue en voiture was one among many works of popular literature that embraced the new form of mass transit as an archetypal modern subject that embodied many of the features of this very literature. An astonishing number of cultural documents published across the nineteenth century explored different aspects of the omnibus experience. These included a broad range of works of urban observation, literary guidebooks, 3 short stories

in Engine of modernity
Antonia Lucia Dawes

functioned in complicity with it, participating in the abuse of those who were more vulnerable (Stallybrass and White 1986 : 9). The idea of the carnivalesque and its relevance to marketplace interactions very practically influenced the way I thought about the selection and definition of research sites in this project. The festive laughter of my market sites spread out along the pavements of the city centre and onto the main forms of public transport that carried my vendor participants and their merchandise to and from work. It also infiltrated different contexts, in

in Race talk