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An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

first time in modern history, the major global power – I am of course referring to the US – doesn’t have a project for the world. It is evident that the US has always defended its own interests, but it always imagined or at least presented its interests – I’m not casting a value judgement here – as linked to a project for the world. Following the Second World War, it was the Americans who assumed primary responsibility for the creation of the international system, starting with Roosevelt. Some international institutions were accessible to all

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

governments provided resources (financial, material or diplomatic) to the Red Cross and the Churches. This allowed them to satisfy the public demand without getting too involved. Kevin: I think that it is useful to think about the Biafran conflict as playing out at the junction of three overlapping trends in post-Second World War international politics. The first is the question of sovereignty. The UNHCR’s refusal to intervene in Biafra is a very good example of how strictly the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was seen as responsible for safeguarding medical neutrality, which is the concept of non-interference in medical services in conflict situations, built around IHL, human rights law and medical ethics. This role was most apparent and effective post-Second World War and up to the late 1990s ( Druce et al. , 2019 ). Over the past three decades, however, the increase in interstate and internationalised wars has led to longer, more complicated wars with more long-term effects and an erosion of the protection of healthcare that has

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

Introduction Despite seventy years of UN programme interventions, the need for global humanitarian assistance has not been greater since the end of the Second World War ( UNHCR, 2016a ). In 2017, more than 201 million people living in 134 countries required humanitarian assistance, with a record 68.5 million people forcibly displaced by violence and conflict ( Development Initiatives, 2018 ; UNHCR, 2017 ). The use of violence and conflict by state and non

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Germany, the use of force and the power of strategic culture
Kerry Longhurst

Germany’s new position in Europe and acquisition of full sovereignty. Instead, through an examination of changing perspectives on the use of force in Germany throughout this period, it can be argued that the ending of the Cold War was not followed by a state of ‘collective infancy’ in Germany akin to that which followed the Second World War. Essentially, none of the foundational elements of the existing strategic culture was fundamentally challenged, disregarded or rendered obsolete, but, as I argue below, rather came to be reinterpreted and reapplied through

in Germany and the use of force
Paul Henley

The half-century running from the mid-1890s, when moving image camera technology was first developed, to the period of the Second World War in the 1940s constitutes over a third of the total time-span of ethnographic film-making. This was a period of tentative beginnings, sporadic activity and blurred genres. Though a large number of films made during this period could be said to possess a certain degree of ‘ethnographicness’ – as defined in the General Introduction to this book – many of these were not produced by academic film-makers, but by

in Beyond observation
Perspectives on civilisation in Latin America
Jeremy C.A. Smith

 counter-​imagination contextualises Americanism and is common to modernist traditions and subsequent traditions of radical critique and activism. Second, I delineate modernist movements in philosophy, literature and poetry and the arts that made such modernist traditions. They flourished in the first part of the twentieth century. However, after the Second World War, modernism found radical expression in Latin American Marxism, political economy, liberation theology and indigenous social movements. Overall, I contend that modern Latin America has emerged from the cross-​currents, conflicts and

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

, scientists. Lafitte, looking back on the internment episode four decades later, starts his ‘afterthoughts’ in this way: The only blessing for which we can thank Britain’s rounding up of its ‘enemy aliens’ in 1940 is that it unintentionally accomplished the genesis of the Amadeus Quartet. After the Second World War this talented and eventually internationally famous group delighted music lovers everywhere for forty years until Peter Schidlof’s death ended the partnership in 1987. For it was in a British internment camp that Schidlof, a youth of eighteen, made friends and

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Paul Henley

for film-making within these disciplines, combined with a lack of resources and technical competence, the filmic accounts produced by anthropologists during this period constitute no more than the palest of pale shadows of their textual accounts. This is particularly true of the period before the Second World War, when anthropologists, though often first-hand witnesses to the most momentous processes of cultural change, produced very little film material of any consequence. Anyone who has reviewed, as I have done, the archives of ethnographic

in Beyond observation
Jane Brooks

. The nursing sisters of the British Army, having trained in the British 59 Negotiating nursing hospital system, would have been well versed in the need to create and maintain and environment in which healing could take place. The zones into which they were posted during the Second World War and the spaces they were given in which to care for their patients were, however, rarely either favourable to health or to the ‘serenity and security’ needed for recovery. In the previous chapter, fundamental nursing skills, so essential to all nurses, whether in a peacetime

in Negotiating nursing