Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

Ideas about the effects of a certain colour, its associations and symbolism, are far from uniform cross-culturally. In addition, the naming of colours is almost impossible to clarify for earlier periods and for other cultures. The complementary colour is the combination of the two other primaries (red plus yellow as complementary to blue). Or (the Newtonian version), the colour which, combined with its primary, makes white in coloured light, grey in coloured paint. In this chapter, the author focuses on the social and personal meanings of colour (mainly blue). In Western Europe since the medieval period there are plenty of examples of shifting meanings of colour terms. Blue, says Michel Pastoureau, was considered a warm colour in medieval and Renaissance Europe, and only began to be seen as cool in the seventeenth century.

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

In this chapter, the author talks about her mother. She started keeping a baby diary on 5 July 1943, just over three months after the author was born. From starting off as a real Austerity baby, war time model, she soon became lovely and plump. The author also talks about the anxious childhood of the British journalist Anne Karpf, daughter of Holocaust survivors, in London.

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

In this chapter, the author focuses on the liberal British campaigner and MP of the 1940s, Eleanor Rathbone. She is best known for her long campaign for family allowances. The author talks about Tante Leonie's life in Offenburg, or about how their lives changed after the National Socialists came to power in January 1933. The author presents the letter written by Leonie's sister-in-law Meta (wife of Sigmund's brother, Bernhard) to her daughter Trudel.

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

In this chapter, the author focuses on the industrialist and philanthropist, Henry Simon of Manchester, including his relationship with the Norwegian explorer, Fridtjof Nansen. Lawnhurst is one of several mansions in Didsbury, built as family homes by wealthy industrialists and businessmen in the second half of the nineteenth century. In Lysaker, Norway, just outside Oslo, there is another mansion house, called Polhøgda, which is very like Lawnhurst. The house was built in 1901 for the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen, who then lived there until his death in 1930. It was inspired by Lawnhurst: Nansen had borrowed the plans from Henry Simon, after staying there as Henry's guest in 1897.

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

In this chapter, the author talks about his father's interest in philately than in chemistry. The author's own family's history can be read through stamps. The first new stamps were contemporary German stamps, overprinted with 'Sarre', and with a heavy solid bar striking out the 'Deutsches Reich' at the bottom. The Schwitters portrait of Klaus Hinrichsen was one of six 2010 special issue stamps in the Isle of Man. Among the others are paintings by other internees such as Herbert Kaden, Herman Fechenbach, Imre Goth and an artist known as Bertram.

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

In this chapter, the author focuses on the reflections on the lives and images of spinsters. He talks about spinsters in the novels of Muriel Spark. A peculiar aspect of the changing discourse of the spinster is the collusion of feminism with her demonisation in the early twentieth century. The Cult of Single Blessedness affirmed the vocational life of unmarried women. The author traces the ways in which single women have been regarded in Western culture, specifically in Britain and America, over the past two centuries.

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

The fifteenth-century Florentine friar Roberto Caracciolo identifies three aspects of the Annunciation: the Angelic Mission, the Angelic Salutation and the Angelic Colloquy, and others have followed him in discussing the five successive 'laudable conditions of the virgin', stages of the event depicted in pre-Renaissance and Renaissance art. The author's positive imagining of the malignant tumour, and especially his aversion to displaced conversations about childbirth, is long-standing attraction to the scene of the Annunciation in Western art.

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

In this chapter, the author, through a family history, speaks of how forced exile persists through generations. From Claude Levy's own narrative in the film,The Jewish Cemetery - the Last Jews of Wasgau, and from an article about him in another German newspaper, Die Rheinpfalz, she learned a few new things about the family. The German television channel OKTV Südwestpfalz livestreamed this film by the American filmmaker Peter Blystone. The film focuses on small German towns and gives an account of what happened to the Jews there after the Nazi accession to power in January 1933.

in Austerity baby
Yulia Karpova

The chapter identifies an artistic tendency that emerged in the 1960s that I call, following art critic Iurii Gerchuk, ‘neodecorativism’ — a set of artistic strategies to redefine the meaning of decoration and reconceptualise applied art as decorative. Comparing works of applied art from the early and the late 1960s, the chapter reveals the techniques that the artists used to criticise the state-sponsored campaign to improve consumer culture. Far from being a tool of the Party and the government, Soviet decorative art in the late 1960s became a forum for commentary on the fundamental challenges of Soviet modernity and explored the language of postmodernism. It raised such questions as the place of individuality in the world of uniform mass production and consumption, the fate of traditional crafts in the industrial age, the role of diverse folk motifs in Soviet cultural internationalism and the meaning of sincerity and spirituality in a socialist society guided by Party dogmas. Working within the framework of Soviet institutions and policy guidelines, decorative artists and critics of the 1960s advocated the personal freedom of artists and of ordinary people without, however, explicitly resorting to the language of human rights and civil society.

in Comradely objects
Yulia Karpova

This chapter shows that just as VNIITE designers had built a theoretical basis for action by the late 1960s and started developing new prototypes for modern household objects, such as vacuum cleaners and refrigerators, they also started to recognise the inadequacy of the object as a basic unit of socialist material culture. Following the theorists of the Ulm School of Design (1953–68, a school critical of American styling and promoting an interdisciplinary approach to design), VNIITE designers tended to see environments, and not objects, as the ideal end products of their work. Without abandoning the avant-garde’s idea of a comradely object, after the late 1960s Soviet designers and theorists dwelled upon another notion of the avant-garde: the artist as the organiser of all aspects of society’s life, including the material environments of work and leisure. After discussing several projects for home appliances from the early 1970s, the chapter explains the notion of a design programme – an elaboration including systems of objects, environments and labour processes. By analysing two cases of design programmes, one from the early 1970s and another from the 1980s, I demonstrate that this type of design was flexible: it intended to regulate broad areas of human activity but also left space for consumer activity and variation.

in Comradely objects