Problematising the normative connection
Eşref Aksu

, Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence, and U.S. Foreign Policy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980 ). Contemporary theoretical approaches in international relations, including neoliberalism and constructivism, have not ‘engaged in normative thinking per se ’. They have not ‘addressed questions of the ought and should variety’: see R. Shapcott, ‘Solidarism and after

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

antiquarian “management” and on the other hand critical studies in the academy. But the cultures share a focus on threats, in the first to heritage and in the second from heritage. In addition, the division between the two cultures often, albeit not always, coincides with the division between essentialism on the one hand and constructivism on the other. The managers thus see the past and the heritage as really existing, whereas the critics view the past and heritage as constructions for negotiation. I refer to the first culture as Canonical Heritage; the other calls

in Heritopia
Ilias Alami

bias, though, is rarely explained. To the best of my knowledge, only one study tackles the question head on, and attributes this bias to ‘the constructivism of Afro-pessimism’ (Schorr 2011 ). Schorr argues that negative stereotypes of Africa in Western media and society shape the decisions of investors, and overall hamper the continent's ability to attract investment. This argument, importantly, sheds light on how Afro-pessimism shapes global (dis)investment to African markets, but it is ultimately unsatisfying. It essentially tells us that all that is needed to

in The entangled legacies of empire
Open Access (free)
Kerry Longhurst

resurgence of interest in culture in security studies, inspired to a large extent by the rise of constructivism, with its emphasis on identity and interests as being socially constructed.14 On the back of these developments came a new generation of literature applying to various regions and case studies the concept of ‘strategic culture’, as well as cognate notions of security culture, political–military culture and national security culture. Perhaps the most noteworthy major study on strategic culture to have emerged in this period was Alistair Iain Johnston’s Cultural

in Germany and the use of force
New threats, institutional adaptations
James Sperling

environments, in fostering cooperation by lowering transaction costs or by promoting confidencebuilding measures, and in facilitating conflict resolution mechanisms that deter war. Much of the scholarship has also focused on the necessary and sufficient conditions required for international institutions to perform that task.39 Two alternative theories of international relations, neo-liberal institutionalism and social constructivism, have generated particularly promising propositions for understanding the role of institutions as facilitators of cooperation and conflict

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
Soviet things that talk
Yulia Karpova

socialist object was to become ‘an instrument and a co-worker’.17 Christina Kiaer’s impressive study of the objects of Russian Constructivism (an avant-garde stream that included productivism) indicates that the idea of the ‘comradely object’ not only opposed the commodity culture of capitalist countries, but also responded to the partial revival of market mechanisms under the New Economic Policy (NEP), introduced by Lenin in 1921 as a temporary measure to develop the economic basis for a Soviet industry ravaged by the Civil War. As Kiaer suggests, NEP policies such as

in Comradely objects
Yulia Karpova

those who tried to turn an easel painting into a construction and poetry into the ‘literature of facts’ […] Neglecting the specificity of the artistic production of useful objects can not only lead to aesthetic nonsense and tastelessness, but also causes everyday troubles, physical discomfort and the waste of valuable materials.22 With the implicit reference to the ideas of Constructivism and the LEF group (particularly the 1925 volume Literature of Facts that included Sergei Tretiakov’s article ‘Biography of an Object’),23 this passage signals not only Matsa

in Comradely objects
Yulia Karpova

recently prevailed in our architecture and applied art, and, on the other hand, to the asceticism of Constructivism that absolutely rejected any use of decorative means.17 Here, Kagan skilfully used forms of authoritative discourse to update the notion of socialist realism – mutatis mutandis, which could be applied to state socialism, in the spirit of de-Stalinisation. His goal was to correct the misdeeds of the recent past, arguing against corrupt Byzantine grandeur and advocating for a return to the original Bolshevik ethos, but avoiding what he perceived as the avant

in Comradely objects
Open Access (free)
Kosovo and the outlines of Europe’s new order
Sergei Medvedev
Peter van Ham

, this book calls for a reconceptualisation of security and the inside–outside dyad through the introduction of new sets of puzzles that concentrate on issues of identity, culture, language and the normative notions of global politics. There are now numerous critical approaches to (European) politics and the study of international relations in which this book is conceptually embedded. Constructivism, critical theory

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
A review and manifesto
Alan Warde

Sustainability’, Centre for Environmental Change, Lancaster University, April. Shove, E., and Warde, A. (1998), ‘Inconspicuous consumption: the sociology of consumption, lifestyles and the environment’, in Gijswijt, A., Buttel, F., Dickens, P., Dunlap, R., Mol, A., and Spaargaren, G. (eds), Sociological Theory and the Environment II, Cultural and Social Constructivism: proceedings of the second Woudschoten conference, Amsterdam, SISWO, University of Amsterdam. 22 Innovation by demand Warde, A., and Martens, L. (1998), ‘Food choice: a sociological approach’, in A. Murcott

in Innovation by demand