Open Access (free)
The narrative
Sara De Vido

societies ‘the predominant objection against contraceptive use was directed at contraceptive control by women, rather than against contraception itself.’32 The same year, Rebecca Cook published an innovative paper commissioned by the WHO on Women’s Health and Human Rights, in which she emphasised the ‘pervasive neglect of women’s health.’33 In 1995, Aart Hendriks contended that ‘woman’s right to sexual and reproductive health is not only threatened by current expressions of deep-rooted, harmful practices – including 6 DE VIDO 9781526124975 PRINT.indd 6 24/03/2020 11

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
Reconceptualising states’ obligations in countering VAWH
Sara De Vido

health services, in particular sexual and reproductive health services,’ and ‘ensure the availability and accessibility of affordable modern forms of contraception.’94 Are these core obligations, or (merely) obligations to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights? Similar detailed recommendations relating to the rights to health and to reproductive health are included in the concluding observations on Chile, where a verb recurrently used is ‘to ensure.’95 The recent concluding observations adopted by the ESCR Committee are also divided into thematic paragraphs

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Anna Greenwood

8 Denise Roth Allen, Managing Motherhood, Managing Risk: Fertility and Danger in West Central Tanzania , Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 2002 ; Valarie Fildes, Lara Marks and Hilary Marland (eds.), Women and Children First: International Maternal and Infant Welfare, 1870–1945 , London, Routledge, 1992 ; Sarah Hodges, Contraception, Colonialism and

in Beyond the state
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

lives. Education is a prime example of this, but there is also a fear that artistic and cultural life will be suppressed by the dominance of strict Catholic values. Until 1998, indeed, the constitution of the Irish Republic contained principles of law which were effectively religious rules. Divorce, abortion and contraception, for example, were all outlawed in Irish law. On a stricter religious level, some Protestants also fear the authority of the Pope which Catholics accept. This is now a more extreme view, but is held by some such as the reverend Iain Paisley who

in Understanding British and European political issues
Johanna Gondouin
,
Suruchi Thapar-Björkert
, and
Ingrid Ryberg

is prefigured by the US slave economy and other forms of colonial indentured labour. Challenging and nuancing the Western liberal notion of reproductive rights, the concept of ‘reproductive justice’ was coined in the early 1990s by SisterSong, a grassroots collective of women of colour in the United States. Merging reproductive rights with social justice, reproductive justice was launched in order to address ‘how race-​and class-​based histories of population control, sterilisation abuse, high-​risk contraception, poverty, and the effects of environmental pollution

in The power of vulnerability
Open Access (free)
Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo

mediate a reconciliation with the widow. The theme of reversal was still present in the accusation of contraception magic although weaker than in fodder magic, but the emphasis of this trial was not on witchcraft or vidskepelse, but on deciding whether or not Agata had claimed she had learned her skills from the widow. Paradoxically enough, the previous trials seem to have been initiated by Aune, yet did not emphasise the threat Agata posed to her. Rather they showed Agata as potentially harmful to the whole community. Yet in the defamation case, which was initiated by

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Brian Pullan
and
Michele Abendstern

cumbersome process of seeking permission in advance. Students were quick to complain of deteriorating services, which were not confined to libraries and classrooms. Their welfare, no longer sacrosanct, was falling victim to the overriding claims of economy. The Student Health Service maintained by the University and UMIST cost the institutions £210,000 a year and became a candidate for rationalisation in 1980–81, even before the heaviest cuts descended. Unlike most such centres, it was not funded by the National Health Service except to give advice on contraception, and it

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Open Access (free)
The International Arbitration and Peace Association
Heloise Brown

party impulses’.29 This was a position that was in complete harmony with her opinions on the suffrage. A striking contrast to Tod’s position can be found in the arguments of another speaker for the IAPA, Florence Fenwick Miller. Originally qualified in medicine, Miller was one of the earliest women journalists, the biographer of Harriet Martineau and editor of the feminist journal the Woman’s Signal. She was also no stranger to controversy. In 1877 she supported Annie Besant’s popular distribution of a pamphlet on contraception, and as a member of the London School

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Polio in Eastern Europe
Dora Vargha

Politics of Duplicity: Controlling Reproduction in Ceausescu's Romania (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. 19. 6 D. Stenvoll, ‘Contraception, Abortion and State Socialism: Categories in Birth Control Discourses and Policies’, Kansai Univ. Rev. L. & Pol. , 28 (2007); R. Dudova, ‘Regulation of

in The politics of vaccination
Anu Koivunen
,
Katariina Kyrölä
, and
Ingrid Ryberg

practices of curating, cataloguing, and adding metadata have significance for whose lives, stories, and images can be remembered. Ryberg discusses the interplay between lesbian feminist filmmaking and Swedish policies on sexuality in the 1970s, making visible how lesbian self-​presentation and citizenship emerged through discourses of vulnerability, such as abortion and contraception policies. In the same part, Anu Koivunen’s chapter focuses on how the popular Swedish TV series and a trilogy of novels Torka aldrig tårar utan handskar [Don’t Ever Wipe Tears Without Gloves

in The power of vulnerability