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Structuring self-made offers and demands
Andreas Maurer and Wolfgang Wessels

all EC treaty provisions containing procedural specifications (see Figures 2.3 and 2.4), nearly 25 per cent of the European Commission’s initiatives submitted to both the Council and the Parliament up to December 1998 fell under this procedure.72 This is not only the result of an EP-friendly attitude but is also due to the fact that these provisions are mainly ruled by QMV (except for cultural policy and research policy programmes). The demand for this kind of legislation was thus much 2444Ch2 3/12/02 2:02 pm Page 51 The European Union matters 51 higher than

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Continuous theatre for a creative city
David Calder

proposed by Diana Taylor, La Machine attempts to present itself as the inheritor of industrial savoir-faire passed down directly from the Nantes shipbuilding industry. When these attempts succeed, La Machine is able to justify its presence in the repurposed metal fabrication shops. When they fail, La Machine’s workshop is vilified in letters to the local paper as a force of gentrification and a tourist trap, and by extension Nantes’ cultural policy priorities are called into question. In the first half of this chapter I demonstrated the built, discursive, and embodied

in Street theatre and the production of postindustrial space
Richard Parrish

further issue of why the content of EU sports policy has been dominated by the development of sport law? The short answer is that sports law has emerged as a tactic to enable the EU’s competing policy has objectives for sport to co-exist. In the absence of guiding legislation, sports law provides stability and the necessary legal certainty for the EU to continue to pursue a regulatory interest in sport without undermining its socio-cultural policy objectives for sport. It is argued below that policy analysis can be employed as a tool for theoretically strengthening the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Simon Mabon

. 122 Hamid Dabashi, The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism (London: Zed Books, 2012). 123 Hakki Tas, ‘Street Arts of Resistance in Tahrir and Gezi’, Middle Eastern Studies, 53:5 (2017), 802–​19. 124 Ibid., pp. 802–​6. 125 Tripp, The Power and the People. 126 Sadiki, Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring, p. 4. 127 Judith Butler, Bodies in Alliance and the Politics of the Street (EIPCP, European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies, 2011). 128 Charlotte Schriwer, ‘Graffiti Arts and the Arab Spring’, in Sadiki, Routledge Handbook of the Arab

in Houses built on sand
Yulia Karpova

its revolutionary development’8 – that is, to visualise the state’s promises by depicting recognisable life forms in the desired manner. Formally, socialist realism remained the only permitted artistic method until perestroika. However, with the changes in cultural policies after Stalin, including the rise of decorative art and the emergence of the design profession, the notion of socialist realism could not remain the same. To fulfil the modern socialist material culture, the notion of socialist realism had to be updated. What follows is an overview of theoretical

in Comradely objects
Yulia Karpova

artist did not want a middle-class status – officially still non-existent in Soviet society – but rather yearned to enter the intelligentsia and take part in its traditional role as an educated sub-community cultivating critical attitudes in society. While not openly criticising the Soviet system and not taking the dissident path, decorative artists in the Brezhnev era navigated the muddy waters of late socialist cultural policy in order to make a difference in Soviet aesthetics and consumer culture through their mastery of materials. They attempted to make their

in Comradely objects
Johan Östling

universities (for example in Mainz and Saarbrücken) and to pursue active cultural policies.8 At the same time, the will of the allies to change the German educational system was only one side of the matter. These brief but important years also saw ongoing intellectual reflection concerning the idea of the university. One central question which engaged 6  Dolf Sternberger, ‘Nachbemerkung’, in Karl Jaspers & Fritz Ernst, Vom lebendigen Geist der Universität und vom Studieren: Zwei Vorträge (Heidelberg, 1946), p. 63. 7  Corine Defrance, Les Alliés occidentaux et les universités

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

, norms and standards, social and cultural policies or civil rights, or the extension of harmonisation to new areas of policy. Euro-sceptics challenge the economic, political and social assumptions made by those who favour greater integration, especially with regard to the effects this would have on national economies. However, euro-sceptics do not support British withdrawal from the EU. Eurosclerosis

in The politics today companion to West European Politics