strongly with the Labour Party than the Liberals and the Liberal
Party was split between the followers of Lloyd George and Asquith.
The Labour Party became the official opposition in 1922, out-stripping the Liberals in the election of that year. They formed minority
governments in 1924 and 1929–31, but were unable to gain a majority of seats. Rather surprisingly, it is in the area of foreign policy that
Labour is seen as having had the most success in these two earlyexperiences in government, even though foreign policy is subject to more
external restraints than other
obligations of health in the twentieth century’, in Dorothy Porter,
Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to
Modern Times (London: Routledge, 1999); Jane Brooks, Chapter 3, ‘Nursing
the nation’, in Jane Brooks, ‘“Visiting rights only”: The earlyexperience of
nurses in higher education, 1918–1960’ [unpublished PhD thesis] (London:
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2005).
74 Arthur Salusbury MacNalty, ‘Medical research’, in Arthur Salusbury
MacNalty and W. Franklin Mellor (eds), Medical Services in War: The
many illnesses and
injuries. If this was aa late as 1944, it is not clear why chemists were still
producing crude penicillin. Peake’s oral history is not particularly clear
throughout in terms of timelines, so she could have been referring to earlierexperiences in the desert. Kevin Brown identifies that the early researchers
in Oxford did not have properly designed culture dishes either and that the
team obtained biscuit tins, as well as petrol tins and bedpans, in order to
grow the mould. Brown, Fighting Fit, loc. 3546.
157 Anonymous, ‘Penicillin in the field
. … Seriously. He used to beat the shit out of my Mom. …
Seeing my Mom wearing a pair of glasses walking to school. No. Taking a baseball bat to me at 13 years old. (Sean)
It is hard in the context of a research project to be able to draw any concrete
connections between childhood abuse and trauma and trajectories into the EDL;
discussions are fragmentary, not conducted by a trained psychologist and the experiences often still raw and unprocessed by respondents themselves. Here, just one
case is highlighted as an example of how traces of these earlyexperiences might
earlyexperience of collaborating with health authorities on work within schools.
Over 25 years, the company therefore had to frame and reframe its
own practice many times in negotiations with different ways of understanding and valuing learning. Y Touring was consistently able to articulate
the value of its performances in a range of terms right up to its last two
productions Stunted Trees and Broken Bridges and Hungry by Sarah Daniels.
Since 2014, Townsend has again had to rearticulate the value of work in
the terms of the new independent company Theatre of Debate
The concern for the ‘men of small means’ remained a feature of co-operative rhetoric throughout the early twentieth century. In a letter addressed to Fr Tom Finlay, the IAOS's vice-president, Plunkett argued that the earlyexperience of the co-operative movement ‘united men of the utmost diversity of position, circumstance, interest and opinion’. 16 Ireland's ongoing transition from ‘landlordism to a peasant proprietary’ deprived them of a semblance of social cohesion. 17 Co-operative organisations offered a means to create social cohesion and provided a platform
while on patrol with Fred, and died soon afterwards. Percy relayed the ‘pain’ in Fred’s voice when telling him of this. Some war traumas had to be shared with trusted confidants.
Humour or a light tone deflected familial jitters. It was undeniable, Arthur Sadd admitted to his elder sister, that trench warfare ‘was a bit tiring to the nerves’, but as long as nothing landed within ten to twelve yards, it did not ‘worry you a lot’. 71 Writing to his twelve-year-old sister, Edward Chapman wrote about an earlyexperience of shelling:
The attacking party had some
are afraid of an earlyexperience happening to you again. Something that is good now and proper, but the fear still remains. I'd like you to think along those lines.
She followed the same type of procedure with each patient, pushing them to explain what was going on in their sexual life and why they were seeking advice. By
heroes, Bevis of Southampton, Guy of Warwick
and Saint George, Tom Hickathrift and the Seven Champions among them,
but that the little girl, Betty, as her mother told him, ‘deals chiefly in fairies
and sprights’. Already, it seems, the male imagination was being fired by a
world of swashbuckling adventure as delivered from cheap print whereas the
female mind was being nurtured on a magical lore as delivered from the
mouths of maids and nurses.104
Several generations later the vivid testimony of John Clare, whose earlyexperiences are dealt with in more detail by Bob