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Conversations about the past in Restoration and eighteenth-century England
Daniel Woolf

Speaking of history HISTORY READ ALOUD While it was not as common a practice as it had been in antiquity and in the early Renaissance, public readings of history books continued to occur in early modern Europe, though there are relatively few documented occurrences of this in England.5 By the seventeenth century, with plenty of books available and private homes furnished with libraries and closets, there was little necessity for this among the literate, and the English have in any case never possessed much in the way of a piazza sociability. The most obvious exception is

in The spoken word
Paul Warde

(Allen 2009, Mokyr 2009). This growth was clearly energy intensive – increasingly so, up until the 1880s (Warde 2007). Is England thus an exceptional case of natural resource-based growth and economic leadership, rather than the exemplary case for industrialization as understood by earlier generations of economic historians (Rostow 1953)? Unlike today, but rather like most of the world until well into the twentieth century, early modern Europe was largely an ‘organic economy’. That is, nearly all of its energy came from the process of photosynthesis in plants

in History, historians and development policy
Chinese puzzles and global challenges
R. Bin Wong

and internalized a set of Confucian political beliefs that made their efforts more than the anxious instrumental acts of leaders who saw themselves as foreign and thus in special need of acceptance by those they ruled. Part of the explanation no doubt lies in the greater importance of warfare and military spending to early modern European rulers than late imperial Chinese emperors. In the two centuries before Lindert’s late eighteenth-century baseline for observing a rise in social spending first in England and then on the nineteenth- Bayly 04_Tonra 01 21

in History, historians and development policy
The example of the German principality of Waldeck
Andreas Flurschütz da Cruz

Philip Marc, who had significant financial scope and credit, played an important role in this field, as they were part of far-flung international financial and economic networks.44 Asche, Michael Herrmann, Ulrike Ludwig, and Anton Schindling, Herrschaft und soziale Systeme in der Frühen Neuzeit vol. 9 (Berlin: Lit, 2008), pp. 11–36 (p. 14). 42 Marika Keblusek, ‘Introduction: Profiling the Early Modern Agent’, in Your Humble Servant: Agents in Early Modern Europe, ed. by Hans Cools, Marika Keblusek, and Badeloch Noldus (Hilversum: Uitgeverij Verloren, 2006), pp. 9

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
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The Enlightenment and modernity
S.J. Barnett

less exclusively topdown process. The core of my argument on intellectual change, however, is that it is rarely solely a top-down process and, on the question of religion at least, public opinion is always a major factor. Yet public opinion has usually been regarded as a modern phenomenon, of relatively less importance prior to the French Revolution. I wish to assert, therefore, that religious change in early modern Europe cannot be understood without placing public opinion at centre stage – as the case studies of France and England illustrate – even though it was

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)
Alison Forrestal

Introduction 22/3/04 12:11 pm Page 1 Introduction An overview of the Catholic episcopate in early modern Europe comments that ‘one of the most far-reaching if usually under-remarked changes of the Reformation period as a whole concerns the function and necessity of bishops in the church’.1 Although immediately applicable to those regions of the Reformation where bishops disappeared altogether from the ecclesiastical and political landscapes, this observation might appear to have no relation to Catholic Europe.2 Here, bishops not only survived but also

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo

authorities, points out that in eastern Finland, especially in Viipuri Karelia, the demonological theories of early modern Europe never gained much support among the local authorities. According to Nenonen, demonological theory was what focused attention on women, and so the eastern authorities never developed a particular interest in female magic.46 On the other hand, as far as witchcraft was connected to social and hierarchical confusion, which was not always the case, the more formal eastern model of gender relations seems to have offered fewer possibilities for communal

in Beyond the witch trials
Feijoo versus the ‘falsely possessed’ in eighteenth-century Spain
María Tausiet

maniaco, sin primer lo haber aprendido (Seville, 1585), p. 357. See Roger Bartra, El siglo de Oro de la melancolía. Textos españoles y novohispanos sobre las enfermedades del alma (Mexico City, 1998). 35 Velásquez, Libro de la melancolía, p. 360. 36 See Feijoo, ‘Demoniacos’, p. 17. 37 Feijoo, ‘Demoniacos’, p. 17. 38 Feijoo, ‘Demoniacos’, p. 17. 39 See Stuart Clark, Thinking with Demons. The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (Oxford, 1997), pp. 161–78. 40 In spite of this the girl and her father carried on their way to Paris where she was examined by five doctors

in Beyond the witch trials
Marie Lennersand and Linda Oja

Weisman, Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion in Seventeenth-Century Massachusetts (Amherst, 1984). 4 The project is funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation. 5 For a general overview of Swedish trials in this period see Bengt Ankarloo, ‘Sweden: The Mass Burnings (1668–1676)’, in Bengt Ankarloo and Gustav Henningsen (eds), Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford, 1993), pp. 285–317; P. Sörlin, Wicked Arts: Witchcraft and Magic Trials in Southern Sweden, 1635–1754 (Brill, 1999). 6 Sentences 4/2 1671, Leksand, in C. G. Kröningssvärd (ed

in Beyond the witch trials
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Speaking pictures?
Chloe Porter

recognition of painting as the supreme model of mimetic representation. 20 In early modern Europe, circulating alongside the notion of ut pictura poesis were the paragone (‘comparison’) debates, which revolved around the struggle for superiority amongst modes of representation. 21 The paragone were known to English playwrights in this period and shape a number of dramatic treatments of

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama