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Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

streitbare Demokratie Structural Funds [See: Economic and Social Cohesion] subsidiarity Suez crisis Tangentopoli terrorism Treaties of Rome Treaty of European Union (TEU) [See: Maastricht Treaty] Treaty of Nice Treuhandanstalt Trizonia [See: Bizonia] two-ballot electoral system ‘Two

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
From disaster to devolution and beyond
Peter Lynch

future of Scottish Conservatism. This included organisational reform and some kind of rapprochement with devolution as a means of restoring the party’s fortunes in Scotland – even though the party remained committed to opposeing devolution at the 1997 referendum. Jackson Carlaw, the party’s deputy chairman, expressed the deep-seated reforms necessary: There needs to be a complete redefinition of the party, including a different approach to the constitution, to the electoral system and to party funding. There has to be a comprehensive realignment of the party in

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
Implications for the party system
David Hanley

-Green sentiments continued to rise among voters, despite finding no successful partisan outlet (Boy, 1993). Several factors ensured this, including division among Green elites, the entry barriers imposed by the electoral system to all new parties and even sharp practice (for instance, Interior Minister Quilès allowing the registration of numerous doubtful ecology candidacies in 1993, thus scattering the Green offer confusingly). The Greens were even unable in 1994 to re-elect their MEPs from1989. Undoubtedly their challenge could have been ignored by the plural left, which could

in The French party system
Open Access (free)
Shaun Breslin

of Laos, Vietnam and China, where political and social freedom remained strictly restrained despite increased economic freedom as a result of marketization and the retreat from socialism. A third set, on its own, is Singapore, where the electoral system should not be allowed to disguise a limited franchise, and strict state controls over social freedom. Finally, there is a set of regional states that have moved away from freedom and democratization. For example, Cambodia, which has tightened authoritarian rule despite partial freedom status in the mid-1990s; and

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Cameron Ross

and Southern Europe. From my reading of this literature three major schools can be identified. One school has focused on the preconditions necessary for the emergence of stable democracy: 1 modernisation, industrialisation, urbanisation, education, capitalism and wealth;2 2 the nature of classes and the class structure, with a focus on the positive role of the bourgeoisie or the proletariat;3 3 a democratic political culture and civil society;4 4 the importance of institutional factors,5 electoral systems,6 type of regime – parliamentary or presidential,7 the

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

rarely influences voting behaviour. Political parties know this, so they do not consider it a high priority. Meanwhile, the British Green party has failed to gain a significant toe-hold in British political life, largely as a result of the first-past-the-post electoral system which discriminates against small parties. As we shall see below, some progress has been made in recent years, but this is slow and relatively modest. THE ORIGINS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Until the 1960s the environment scarcely appeared at all on the political agenda. There had been concerns

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
‘Deutschland den Deutschen!’
Cas Mudde

only at the state (Land) level. If a party gained more than five per cent in one state it gained entry in the federal parliament. With the amendments to the electoral law in 1953 and 1956 the electoral system became as follows: every German has two votes, the Erststimme (first vote) is cast for a candidate in a constituency, the Zweitstimme (second vote) for a party list at the state level. The second vote determines the final percentage of parliamentary seats, the first vote (in part) the people that occupy these seats. A party needs more than 5 per cent at the

in The ideology of the extreme right
Open Access (free)
Peter Burnell

export their democracy abroad. The chapters display the particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). These objects span the borders of politics and legal affairs; to which can be added the economists’ interest in democracy’s institutional guarantees more broadly defined, most notably investment in education (Addison). South Asia appears exceptional in terms of the inertia displayed by formal

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
The Conservatives in crisis
Philip Lynch and Mark Garnett

middle class and women, in urban and suburban areas. Tactical voting and strong Liberal Democrat performances in Tory target seats also damaged the prospects of a recovery in the near future. As Broughton noted in Chapter 10, the electoral system is biased against the Conservatives to the extent that they will require a double figure lead over Labour to gain a parliamentary majority at the next election. A crisis of Conservatism In the 2001 leadership contest, Kenneth Clarke called the period in opposition ‘four wasted years’. The judgment is rather harsh. Hague earns

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
Between political controversy and administrative efficiency
Kenneth A. Armstrong and Simon Bulmer

parliamentary legislation or acting as a check on government. • The English legal tradition (common law) differs from that of continental Europe. • The rules of the Westminster electoral system tend to ensure singleparty majoritarian government. • The institutional structure of the state encourages the conduct of adversarial politics in Westminster between government and opposition parties. • The Prime Minister has considerable potential power resources, and 2444Ch17 3/12/02 392 • • • • • 2:07 pm Page 392 Member States and the European Union can call upon the

in Fifteen into one?