Martin D. Moore

Projects like the SMD-funded retinopathy screening trials reflected the British state's growing engagement with diabetes during the 1980s. In that specific instance, the DHSS's hopes for generating organisational guidance for the NHS were disappointed. Central state interest in diabetes management, however, remained undimmed, and much more extensive standards for diabetes care would be produced by the new millennium. The work of elite practitioners and specialists proved integral to maintaining state interest in both

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Marie Lennersand and Linda Oja

Ångermanland: ‘In the past, visions and superstitions caused much confusion in this province and elsewhere. In our enlightened time such things are regarded with contempt and even the famous journeys to Blåkulla and witchcraft are now mentioned without fear, showing the misbelief and confusion of the past.’ 24 This way of describing witchcraft and magical beliefs was typical of the male ‘enlightened’ elite of eighteenthcentury Sweden. Among many scientists, clergymen, civil servants and other men with a university education, there was a sceptical jargon concerning witchcraft

in Beyond the witch trials
Author: Susan M. Johns

This is a study of noblewomen in twelfth-century England and Normandy, and of the ways in which they exercised power. It draws on a mix of evidence to offer a reconceptualization of women's role in aristocratic society, and in doing so suggests new ways of looking at lordship and the ruling elite in the high Middle Ages. The book considers a wide range of literary sources—such as chronicles, charters, seals and governmental records—to draw out a detailed picture of noblewomen in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm. It asserts the importance of the life-cycle in determining the power of these aristocratic women, thereby demonstrating that the influence of gender on lordship was profound, complex and varied.

Olga Vassilieva

weaker than was the contribution of ethnic identity to conflict escalation. In explaining the formation of ethno-nationalism, scholars have proposed two basic approaches – ‘primordialistic’, which explains ethno-nationalism via the universal and natural character of ethnicity (i.e. ‘loyalty to one’s own ethnic group, culture or place of origin’); and ‘constructed’, which considers ethnic culture and nation to be primarily social constructs, subjects for manipulation by elites in their competition for wealth and power. These were named ‘imagined communities’ by Benedict

in Potentials of disorder
Crafting authoritarian regimes in Russia’s regions and republics
Cameron Ross

regional elites. Russia’s ‘federation’ without ‘federalism’ has simply allowed the authoritarianism of the centre to be replaced by local level authoritarianism. As we discussed in chapter 3 regional and republican elites have been able to adopt constitutions/charters and other laws which violate the federal constitution. And a number of the bilateral treaties signed between Moscow and the regions have sanctioned the transfer of unconstitutional rights and powers to the republics.1 Thus, authoritarian leaders have been able to use the federal system as a protective

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Global Britishness and settler cultures in South Africa and New Zealand
Charles V. Reed

democracy by colonial elites in New Zealand and elsewhere in the empire during royal visits, Alfred’s visit to the province of Canterbury shared another characteristic of metropolitan society – it was a ‘class act’. As elsewhere, events were planned by provincial elites, who limited and controlled attendance by charging an entrance fee and discouraging contact between the prince and lower class publics. The

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Open Access (free)
John Toland and print and scribal communities
Justin Champion

Communities of readers 2 . Publishing reason: John Toland and print and scribal communities T OLAND did more than simply read and write books: he was a key agent in disseminating ideas around the elite salons of early eighteenth-century Europe. In the last chapter Toland’s involvement in a world of learning and the library was explored. One of the intentions was to underscore the social dimensions of this world of learning: gaining entrance to the inner sanctum of a man’s library was a means of getting inside his head. In locating Toland in this milieu we

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
An actor-network theory perspective
Author: Roslyn Kerr

In today’s world, we are offered a constantly expanding number of technologies to integrate into our lives. We now utilise a range of interconnected technologies at work, at home and at leisure. The realm of sport is no exception, where new technologies or enhancements are available to athletes, coaches, scientists, umpires, governing bodies and broadcasters. However, this book argues that in a world where time has become a precious commodity and numerous options are always on offer, functionality is no longer enough to drive their usage within elite sports training, competition and broadcasting. Consistent with an actor-network theory approach as developed by Bruno Latour, John Law, Michele Callon and Annemarie Mol, the book shows how those involved in sport must grapple with a unique set of understandings and connections in order to determine the best combination of technologies and other factors to serve their particular purpose. This book uses a case study approach to demonstrate how there are multiple explanations and factors at play in the use of technology that cannot be reduced to singular explanations like performance enhancement or commercialisation. Specific cases examined include doping, swimsuits, GPS units, Hawk-Eye and kayaks, along with broader areas such as the use of sports scientists in training and the integration of new enhancements in broadcasting. In all cases, the book demonstrates how multiple actors can affect the use or non-use of technology.

Open Access (free)
John Toland and the crisis of Christian culture, 1696–1722
Author: Justin Champion

This book explores the life, thought and political commitments of the free-thinker John Toland (1670–1722). Studying both his private archive and published works, it illustrates how he moved in both subversive and elite political circles in England and abroad. The book explores the connections between Toland's republican political thought and his irreligious belief about Christian doctrine, the ecclesiastical establishment and divine revelation, arguing that far from being a marginal and insignificant figure, he counted queens, princes and government ministers as his friends and political associates. In particular, Toland's intimate relationship with the Electress Sophia of Hanover saw him act as a court philosopher, but also as a powerful publicist for the Hanoverian succession. The book argues that he shaped the republican tradition after the Glorious Revolution into a practical and politically viable programme, focused not on destroying the monarchy but on reforming public religion and the Church of England. It also examines how Toland used his social intimacy with a wide circle of men and women (ranging from Prince Eugene of Savoy to Robert Harley) to distribute his ideas in private. The book explores the connections between his erudition and print culture, arguing that his intellectual project was aimed at compromising the authority of Christian ‘knowledge’ as much as the political power of the Church. Overall, it illustrates how Toland's ideas and influence impacted upon English political life between the 1690s and the 1720s.

A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.