Valérie Robin Azevedo

In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Hakim Khaldi

How can we go about our work of saving lives when, in Syria, civilians, the wounded and their families, medical personnel and aid workers are all targets – whether in areas controlled by the government or those held by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD), Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) or various rebel groups with diverging political agendas? Over the course of several field missions, the author of this article, a member of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), sought to decipher the political and military engagements undertaken in different regions of Syria during the war years. He also factored into his analysis the endless flow of data, information and positioning being produced and published over this period, because the war was also fought every day on the internet where the representatives and ideologists of warring groups, human rights organisations, Syrian diaspora organisations and spokespersons of the Syrian central authorities were and still are a permanent presence. Drawing on all these observations and data, the author relates and analyses the emergency relief activities carried out by MSF in Syria, how these activities evolved and the conditions in which choices to intervene and decisions to withdraw were taken.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

prioritised bilateral negotiations. UN institutions were then often used, and even designed, explicitly as vehicles for the pursuit of US interests: the World Food Programme, for example, was established in 1961 to channel American agricultural surplus to the developing world. Liberal internationalism as we know it today, with its particular political and cultural associations with the US, is a product of the 1970s. As Samuel Moyn has argued, it was in the second half of that decade that human rights had its first breakthrough as a cosmopolitan

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

humanitarian interventions. The topic was thrust upon me by events in Rwanda in 1994. As a teenage, second-generation Rwandan immigrant in Belgium, I was more personally affected than fellow classmates by the hypocrisy of the international community: the preaching of respect for human rights, followed by their omission during one hundred days of mass murder before the eyes of the world. It felt like there was more to the story than ‘good intentions versus regrettable outcomes’. Ever since, I have worried about the content and purpose of (Western

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arjun Claire

new language of sans frontières humanitarianism of the 1970s. In the initial days, the témoin was almost invariably the humanitarian volunteer. During the 1970s, témoignage came to be a symbol of a new form of humanitarian action – solidarist and political. Lacking direct translation in English, it proved to be adept at accommodating changing conceptions of humanitarianism within MSF. From a focus on human rights in its early years to a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sophie Roborgh

et al. , 2017 ). Important insights have been gained in the prevalence of attacks on healthcare ( PHR, 2019a ; 2019b ), the measuring of such attacks ( Elamein et al. , 2017 ; Briody et al. , 2018 ; Haar et al. , 2018 ), healthcare workers’ experiences of them ( Funk et al. , 2018 ; Center for Public Health and Human Rights et al. , 2019 ) and their views on how it affects healthcare provision ( Footer et

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanity and Solidarity
Tanja R. Müller and Róisín Read

Famine” Revisited: Band Aid and the Antipolitics of Celebrity Humanitarian Action ’, Disasters 37 : 1 , 61 – 79 . Read , R. ( 2016 ), ‘ Tensions in UN Information Management: Security, Data and Human Rights Monitoring in Darfur, Sudan ’, Journal of Human Rights Practice , 8 : 1

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

such violence ( Chynoweth, 2019a ). Survivors had the option of speaking with a man or woman health provider and some women and men disclosed to providers of a different gender. A report by UC Berkeley’s Human Rights Center (2018) contains similar examples, guidelines and tools from research on disclosure in forced displacement in Central America. Gender-based violence specialists have spent decades working to develop effective programmes that create

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Catherine Akurut

, economic, social and cultural life [which] should be promoted’. As the term originated to facilitate the inclusion of women in fields dominated by men, there is a focus on women. This perhaps explains why, in their definition of gender-inclusion, UNESCO advocates activities that pave the way for women to ‘exercise their human rights’. Scholars such as Adamson et al. (2016 : 8) claim that the focus of gender-inclusion should shift to the ‘ quality ’ of inclusion, to enhance

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

early retreat by the military force in place, leaving, as Human Rights Watch put it, ‘civilians behind to face the brunt of attacks from forces bent on pillage and revenge’ ( Human Rights Watch, 2014 : 21). In Bentiu and Leer, violence associated with the dynamics of offensives extended to the hospitals run or supported by the Dutch section of MSF (MSF-Holland, hereafter MSF-H). What motivated these specific acts of violence? And what were the effects of these attacks on

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs