if they lack capacity. A person may be considered to have capacity if they can
understand information provided about the study and the advantages and
disadvantages of taking part. Importantly, they must also be able to form an
independent decision on this and be able to communicate their decision
BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 121
Discussion point 1:
Considering the above, read case example A in Figure 28.
Figure 28 Case example A
You are a service user researcher doing an interview study on a mentalhealth ward.
In order to effect a major
shift in the meaning of autism, there also had to be a major shift
in the organisation of social life. Such a transformation began in
1959. This was the year in which the MentalHealth Act was passed,
which led to the closure of long-stay institutions for children. It
was the MentalHealth Act 1959 that set the scene for the gradual
Urban transformation and public health in future cities
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
that challenges the configurations of complex systems, policy interventions and public health can also be derived from rethinking the interplay of the biological and the social through a framing that foregrounds public health more in terms of a sense of propensity or emergence of patterns in specific contexts. For example, the study of urban mentalhealth has prompted Nikolas Rose and colleagues to return to the theoretical foundations of social science in analysis of the relationship between the metropolis and mentalhealth. In his chapter in this volume, Rose
Understanding the violence of the benevolent welfare state in Norway
’ (Bourdieu, 2000, p. 228).
Where the one who is made to wait is forced into submission, the powerful is the one ‘who does not wait but who makes others wait’. Therefore,
‘absolute power is the power to make oneself unpredictable and deny other
people any reasonable anticipation, to place them in total uncertainty by
offering no scope to their capacity to predict’ (Bourdieu, 2000, p. 228).
Prolonged insecurity, as waiting in the asylum system entails, may
severely impact mentalhealth, and researchers and migrants alike refer
to this prolonged insecurity as psychological
concern here, however, is with the similarities between the institutions of
school and mentalhealth. Schools serve as the gateways to the outside adult world,
a place where children learn and become ‘civilised’, that is to say, culturally and
socially adept. Schools deliver a complex network of control exercised through
hierarchical, disciplinary and educational structures in an attempt to make children conform to adult ideas of ‘ideal’ or ‘normal’ person. The mentalhealth
system is a gateway through which one who has diverged from the ‘normal’ can
enter ‘ill’ and re
effect e.g. mentalhealth symptoms, quality of life, patient satisfaction
BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 28
Figure 5 Developing a review question using PICO
In working-age adults
with anxiety, is Cognitive
more effective than
Citalopram in reducing
A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers
Figure 5 provides an example of how these four categories can be used to
develop a focused research question.
However, not all review
would be a longitudinal study.
This design would enable Paul to examine how rates of depression change
over time and generate further hypotheses (possible explanations to be
proven or disproven) about the factors that seem to increase the prevalence
of depression in the population or explain differences in the prevalence
of depression in different subgroups (e.g. age, gender and ethnic groups).
These factors might, for example, include things like changes in mentalhealth
policy, funding or service provision during this time. However, a longitudinal
study cannot prove
continuous stakeholder engagement for
Mentalhealth care resources are finite. In order to ensure service users
receive the highest quality health care, evidence about the most effective
and acceptable treatments needs to be fully incorporated into health care
policy and practice. However, we have known for a long time that this is not
happening as well as it should be within health services and that research
evidence is not being transferred sufficiently to routine clinical practice both in
the UK and across the world. This is often
Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.
The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand,
and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that
violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state)
health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence
against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human
rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence
against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of
the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the
horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’
dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional
and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept
of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence
against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on
the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised
in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an
innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due
diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment).
The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the
ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).