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Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes, and Davies Banda

the strong political society capable of maintaining liberal democracy’. Furthermore, in common with Ghana's Nkrumah and Tanzania's Nyerere, Kenneth Kaunda did not believe in multiparty democracy from the outset (Nugent, 2004 ; Phiri, 2006 ). Thus, his presidency became increasingly authoritarian not so much in response to the resistance of opposition parties, but owing to internal conflicts and politics within the UNIP. The de facto

in Localizing global sport for development
Kerry Longhurst

conscription.12 The main opposition parties, the CDU and the CSU, also welcomed the court’s ruling, regarding conscription as necessary both to Germany’s security needs and in integrating the armed forces within society.13 In the second wave of defence reforms initiated by the Red–Green coalition a pledge was made as a bargain between the pro-conscription SPD and the pro-reform Greens to examine the future of conscription, which was outlined by the coalition treaty in the wake of the Federal election in September 2002. However, rather than heralding a far-reaching discussion

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
Roger Southall

of the plurality system were to be demonstrated in Lesotho’s elections of 1993 and 1998, which led to the exclusion of opposition parties from the parliament despite their gaining a sizeable share of the vote. Lesotho moved to adopt a mixed member proportional system in consequence. And South Africa is now considering the merits of the reintroduction of constituency elections for at least a number of its MPs, so as to establish a firmer connection between voters and their representatives. 146 AREAS As much as the debate about electoral systems has transcended

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
The German model of federalism
Arthur B. Gunlicks

by the Land governments. However, the Länder governments (which also means opposition parties) participate in this policy making and can even exercise an absolute veto over most important bills in the Bundesrat, so that it is not accurate to think of federal law making as being highly centralized. Administration is generally carried out according to the principle of unity of command by the local governments to which most federal laws are transferred by the Länder for implementation. The most important tax revenues are shared by the federal, Land, and to some extent

in The Länder and German federalism
Economy, football and Istria
Alex J. Bellamy

history’.79 There can be little doubting the importance of this success. Recognising this, leaders of all the major opposition parties attempted to claim the victory as their own. Even an American diplomat, Strobe Talbott, commented that ‘Croatia’s footballers have shown the world that Croatia is a small nation which can show its high level of competition and perseverance’, adding that he believed that ‘Croatia will do the same in the fields of economy, social services and democracy’.80 An estimated 100,000 people greeted the team’s return to Zagreb.81 Tuœman personally

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Raymond Hinnebusch

equality, it was now deployed to protect the new economic inequalities that followed on infitah . This post-populist period is associated with uneven political liberalisation: while the interest groups of the bourgeoisie were given greater corporatist and parliamentary access to power and safety valve opposition parties for the middle class were tolerated within strict limits, mass organisations and trade unions were brought under stricter control and excluded from the access to decision-makers they often formerly enjoyed in the populist era

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Flexible and pragmatic adaptation
Danielle Bossaert

become aware of the advantages of better mutual consultation. Thus, in 1996 the two largest trade unions, the socialist OGBL (Onofhëngege Gewerkschaftsbond Lëtzëbuerg) and the Christian LCGB (Lëtzëbuerger Chrëschtleche Gewerkschaftsbond), established a joint office in order to better safeguard Luxembourg’s interests within the ETUC. Both parties in the government (the Christian Social Party and the Democratic Party) as well as the main opposition parties (the Socialist Party and the green parties) openly follow a course in favour of integration. Accordingly, the

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
One way to Europeanisation
Maria João Seabra

overwhelmingly dependent on the structural funds. While other cohesion countries can obtain significant resources from the CAP, Portugal on the contrary is a net contributor in terms of agricultural policy. Another important topic is the phasing out of the Lisbon region. Until recently, the whole of the country qualified for Objective One, but the Lisbon region is now over the 75 per cent threshold. The internal political debate on Agenda 2000 was very strong, with opposition parties urging the government to veto proposals that could be detrimental to Portugal. The government

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

, and opposition parties have even less. There are also the constraints provided by domestic state institutions, political culture, geographical location and economic resources. In the case of Britain, foreign policy is rarely made by bills passed through Parliament, and this tends to isolate it from the kind of scrutiny and legislative control that other policy areas are subject to. There is also a particular oblique British style of conducting foreign policy, which mitigates against a radical redrawing of foreign policy, that Kenneth Waltz described as: To proceed

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
The Indian experience
Shirin M. Rai

Women’s Association to the Communist Party of India (Marxist). 2 The exceptions are the two Communist Parties, which are highly structured and disciplined and cadre based. 3 The first challenge to the Congress Party’s domination of Indian politics came in the wake of the Emergency, when Mrs Gandhi lost the elections to a coalition of Opposition parties brought together under the umbrella of the Janata Party. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the BJP supported this coalition. 4 Women were active in the nationalist movement in both the Congressled non

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?