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Transgressing the cordon sanitaire: understanding the English Defence League as a social movement

, between one-fifth and three-quarters of the UK population hold anti-Muslim or anti-Islam attitudes. One explanation for these perceptions is that they are driven by the impact of 9/11 and other terrorist attacks, or more specifically, by subsequent media debates and policy responses. While there is clear evidence of an immediate rise in anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiments following major events (Strabac and Listhaug, 2008: 274), a series of studies suggest that, across Europe, attitudes and policies show more continuity than radical break, pre- and post-9/11 and that

in Loud and proud
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those who regard all opposition as diabolical, all criticism as immoral and all compromise as treason. In practice, fundamentalism, it is alleged, drives people to extremes by justifying acts which reasonable people would see as outrageous – suicide bombings in Israel, attacks on abortion clinics in America, anti-Western terrorist attacks in the USA and elsewhere. Within America, fundamentalists have been strongly criticised

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe

deny the fact that the terrorist attacks against the US have in effect ushered in a new era in international politics. The priorities of international relations, the nature of regional politics, the shape of political alliances, the driving purpose of US foreign policy, the nature of international cleavages, the evolving role of military forces and the risks of WMD were all affected by the epoch-making events. The terrorist attacks have altered the Western strategic threshold but they have not really challenged the American position in the world, although the impact

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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The state of surprise

elsewhere. The conflicts in the Middle East, the terrorist attacks on the USA on 11 September 2001 and the subsequent protracted wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the rise of China: these have been the major themes dominating the Western political and security agenda since 2001. Even during the war in Ukraine, attention to Russia was diluted by the Ebola virus, the civil wars in Syria and Libya and

in The new politics of Russia
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Negotiating with multiculture

of a very different kind from the desire considered by most of the literature on school choice. In addition, it is important to note how talking about ‘mix’ includes consideration of religious difference as well as racialised differences. This is particularly important in the current context where Muslim experience of racism is increasing in general and often peaks in times where there have been terrorist attacks.7 Nonetheless, concerns about mix from some non-white parents could also include prejudice and stereotyping. Samer, as mentioned above, explained that, in

in All in the mix
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the REP had reaped what the DVU had sown, because the whole media had led the right-wing protest down this ‘harmless road’ (DNZ 23/6/89). This touches on another sentiment that is often voiced in the paper: the unjust way in which the DVU is treated by the outside world. Especially in regard to election campaigns and the annual meeting in Passau the party complains about the way political enemies (‘left-wing terrorists’) attack its members and the fact that the other parties and media either ignore this or, even worse, encourage it. In addition, the party forcefully

in The ideology of the extreme right

Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York, destroyed in a terrorist attack in 2001, served both for attackers and attacked as an expression and a constituent part of US economic, and global economic, power and prestige. 48 In Paris in 1871, the communards demolished the Vendôme column with the statue of Napoleon on top of it, an action far more readily possible than the construction of an alternative polity and society. 49 The human effort devoted to such destruction is inexplicable in narrowly utilitarian terms. But as part of the bitter conflicts of

in Cultivating political and public identity
Cinema, news media and perception management of the Gaza conflicts

claims, on the other, exclusive focus on their humanitarian status disavows their political claims, as a people colonised by Israel. On the news, the Gaza conflicts are typically described as ‘wars’ between Israel and Hamas, disconnected from a history of colonisation and occupation. We are repeatedly told that Israel is under terrorist attack by Hamas rockets, fired into Israeli territory from Gaza, and

in Global humanitarianism and media culture

and several other Armenian politicians in a bizarre terrorist attack on a parliamentary session in October. Lacking support on his right flank, Kocharian backed away from a willingness to agree to any realistic compromise. Aliev was similarly constrained. In spite of his authoritarian control of his country, partly charismatic and partly institutionalised, he, too, had to be sensitive to the virtually unanimous view of the political opposition that any compromise peace was tantamount to betrayal. He responded by conducting all of the Karabagh negotiations himself

in Limiting institutions?
The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia

‘coordinated’ rather than ‘joint’ operations). CIS security functions received additional competencies in October 2000 when an agreement was signed in Biskek to create a joint rapid reaction force, consisting of troops from Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, to respond to regional crises and to fortify porous border areas against terrorist attacks and incursions. In March 2001, the CIS Collective Security Council secretary, Valery Nikolaenki, visited Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to discuss military integration of rapid reaction forces, to include

in Limiting institutions?