Open Access (free)
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

theorists’ categories and views of witches objectifies to some degree the individuals caught on the receiving end of witch trials. This is regrettable,even distasteful,given the ordeals many of the witches suffered; however, it is unavoidable in a study devoted primarily to the ideas of those who thought witches were real and dangerous. There is very little room for manoeuvre on this point; either one respects historical actors

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

as much of a nuisance to modern scholars looking for patterns as he was to his community of Danbury.He muddles the patterns,and in doing so forces us to re-examine our assumptions about both male and female witches. Chonrad Stoeckhlin, Oberstdorf From 1587 to 1592, a wave of witch trials rolled across the prince-bishopric of Augsburg. In one district, Oberdorf, the trials claimed sixty-eight lives: ‘the

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Demonological descriptions of male witches
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

’s ‘even-handedness’ is not even in the main body of the text; it is buried in an appendix. Burghartz’s astonishment at finding a number of male witches in the Formicarius is particularly telling. Burghartz knows from reading Richard Kieckhefer’s study of medieval European witch trials that in the mid-fifteenth century, when the Formicarius was composed, a significant proportion (32 per cent) of witches were male, and she

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

-cutting problems presented by cultural-political agendas that need certain modernist tropes to validate their ascendancy.Roper’s feminist account of male–female relations benefits a great deal from the discovery/existence of an oppressive, patriarchal psychosexual dynamic of sado-masochism in witch trials; in the case of modern analyses of martyrdom, modernist views of religion benefit even more by reducing martyrdom to psychological and

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
The historian and the male witch
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

, Monter wonders ‘why Normandy put mainly male witches on trial’, then launches directly into his discussion of profaning the Eucharist. 36 There is some other useful research on male witches, although it tends to be embedded in works focusing on other issues. For example, Eva Labouvie begins her article on men’s roles in witch trials with a brief survey of the witchcraft literature, and takes exception to the

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Agency and selfhood at stake
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

alluded to the sado-masochistic sexual tendencies in Romantic literary depictions of witches and witch trials; one wonders about the lenses through which modern scholars view the topic, and where these lenses originate. 15 Evidence from other early modern witchcraft cases, as well as accounts by modern torture survivors, suggests that Roper has paid insufficient attention to the complex relationship between the devastating

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Stephen Mitchell

, resulting in a symbiosis between elite and non-elite views, the most apparent results of which were the witch trials between 1400 and 1700. 11 Following the so-called ‘Enlightenment’ in the eighteenth century, religious and secular authorities repudiate such belief systems, whereas non-elite views about witchcraft and evil continue into the contemporary world. Briggs accords a far smaller role to the interventions of elite

in Witchcraft Continued
Open Access (free)
Hans Peter Broedel

personal experience in witch prosecutions both in the Malleus and his personal correspondence (for instance in a report written in 1490 to the Nürnberg city council, he boasted of having been responsible for the discovery and execution of more than two hundred witches19), there is an almost complete lack of corroborating evidence. Indeed, on the basis of contemporary documents, the only witch-trials in which Institoris’ participation can be proven are those which took place in Ravensburg in 1484 and in Innsbruck in the following year.Though additional records might

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
Slander and speech about witchcraft
Alison Rowlands

appeared as accused witches in witch-trials there, with most of the former cases ending with the punishment of the slanderer.39 In her study of twenty-seven slander cases brought by alleged witches against their accusers before the court of Davensberg in the Prince-Bishopric of Münster in the early seventeenth century, Gudrun Gersmann shows that they also enjoyed a high success rate: only one of these alleged witches was subsequently prosecuted and executed for witchcraft by the authorities.40 In 24 WITCHCRAFT NARRATIVES IN GERMANY Rothenburg, the gamble of taking

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Elite beliefs about witchcraft and magic
Alison Rowlands

the city and its survival, then, helps explain why the councillors showed little enthusiasm for pursuing the allegations of witchcraft raised by villagers in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century beyond the limits of due legal procedure and why they often emphasised the restoration of social harmony in their resolution of witchcraft cases. Partly as a result of their traditional policies regarding slander and partly as a result of observing the effects of large-scale witch-trials in other areas, the councillors seem to have realised from an early date

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany