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, psychological warfare specialists of the Fifth Bureau, which rose to gain extraordinary levels of political power in the army between late 1956 and early 1960. The Fifth Bureau was inspired by the idea that attempts to win over the Algerian population to the French side could not afford to neglect women, one half of the population. Moreover, good or accurate intelligence – which was regarded as the key to any successful counter-insurgency programme M1822 - MACMASTER TEXT.indd 3 21/7/09 12:16:10 4 Burning the veil – was crucially dependent on building close contacts with

in Burning the veil

. However, what the local tribunals were able to achieve depended on the co-operation of secular rulers and the ecclesiastical organs already in existence in a given state.73 Several of the Italian states, such as the republics of Venice, Genoa and Lucca, established their own courts dedicated to eradicating heresy and insisted that the Inquisition not interfere. In duchies such as Mantua and Modena, Inquisitors had to accept that ruling dukes tolerated the heretical tendencies of some of the leading members of their courts, sometimes to the point of shielding them from

in Jews on trial
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question of where to place Britain’s fascists in the loyalty ratings was at least straightforward: they could be counted a clear liability, at best conscientious objectors, at worst fifth columnists if war with the fascist states ever came. But calm assessment of this situation would have shown little cause for alarm. The reality was that the amount of noise generated by the fascists in the politics of the 1930s was out of all proportion to their numbers. Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists could at its peak claim only about 20,000 members and it signally failed to

in Half the battle

part of the reason why efforts at institution-building consistently failed. The Netherlands was not a weak state but rather an accommodating one, which steered a middle course between concession to social forces – the legacy of the Republic – and a strong tendency towards organisation, a Batavian–French impulse. Statistics flourished under both approaches, though in different ways. Vissering and Von Baumhauer represented the two organisational structures of statistics in the Netherlands: one shaped by the state and the other supported by society’s elites. Without

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century

the Free State's butter production. Four-fifths of the total employment in dairying and bacon curing was concentrated in the south-western province of Munster. 39 The co-operative movement and civil war Military conflict provided a stern challenge for the Irish Free State Government in 1922. The capture of Dublin's Four Courts by Republican forces opposed to the Treaty in April 1922 challenged the legitimacy of the new state. The government responded in June by using the newly established National Army to crush the

in Civilising rural Ireland
The Vichy consulates

justified. It should be further stressed that the British, too, kept a close watch on the consular staff, fearful lest they constituted a fifth column and instigated discontent among the many French communities. This is the history of that potential fifth column. Rather than being the story of secretive, double-talk conversations between London and Vichy conducted by shady emissaries, it is an illustration of how the remorseless wheels of petty bureaucracy – form-filling, passport applications and personal references – kept turning despite the breakdown of diplomatic

in The forgotten French

the new republic would mark an extraordinary phase in the M1822 - MACMASTER TEXT.indd 380 21/7/09 12:16:32 The post-independence state 381 simultaneous liberation of Algerian women from the fetters of colonialism and ‘feudal’ patriarchy. Frantz Fanon, for example, in L’An V de la révolution algérienne, optimistically forecast a ‘radical mutation’ in the role of women, gender relations and traditional family structures and the birth of a ‘new society’.55 Algerian women, it would seem, had through both their heroic sacrifice and the demonstration of an ability to

in Burning the veil
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Jewish masters and Christian servants

discussion of the licences issued by ecclesiastical and secular authorities in Modena to moderate Christian service in Jewish households. The third part deals with the wetnurse’s position in the Jewish household, using the processi as evidence of wider implications, the extent of contact and the form of contract between master and servant. The final part concentrates on the role of other Christian servants in Jewish households, the type of position assumed and levels of social interaction between Jew and Christian. Prohibitions From as early as the fifth century, the

in Jews on trial
Towards a union or not?

The European Union’s dilemma 139 form – should have essentially the same functions today as forty years ago. The question is all the more important as the President of the Commission, Romano Prodi, declared that he wanted the Commission to become a European ‘government’.18 The founders of constitutions, whether in the United States of America in 1787 or in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, know that everything hinges on the principles of democracy and accountability pervading all branches of government. It is doubtful whether in Philadelphia in 1787 anyone

in Destination Europe

for the two forms of The racing business between the wars racing. The two-day event was the most common in both, although slightly more common on the flat. But generally about two-fifths of National Hunt meetings were only of a single day. For some like Bungay this could be their only meeting. Alexandra Park, a London flat-racing course, had six meetings, each lasting only one day. This was uncommon on the flat. Table 1.1 Percentage of British meetings by length of meeting in days, 1921–39 Racing year 1921 1927 1933 1939 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 plus 1 day 2 days 3

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39