Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

difficult it was to apply IHL long before what are now described as its more serious and frequent contemporary violations. Humanitarian law is part of a long-established normative framework – the distinction between combatants and non-combatants was theorised by Enlightenment philosophers and legal experts (Grotius, Rousseau and Vatel, most notably). The safeguards granted to prisoners of war by the 1929 Convention were already a part of the 1785 Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Prussia and the United States, and long before the humanitarian conventions were

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Consultation Process for World Humanitarian Summit ’, www.agendaforhumanity.org/sites/default/files/resources/2017/Jul/Restoring_Humanity_Synthesis_of_the_Consultation_Process_for_the_World_Humanitarian_Summit.pdf (accessed 9 September 2018 ). Whitman , J. Q. ( 2017 ), Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law ( Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ).

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction

University Press ). Moyn , S. ( 2014 ), Human Rights and the Uses of History ( London : Verso ). Polanyi , K. ( 1957 ), The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time ( Boston : Beacon Press ). White House ( 2017 ), National Security Strategy of the United States of America , https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf , first published online 18 December 2017 .

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we met during discussions within MSF about its kidnapping policy. 7 In reality, this policy is impractical and ineffective. Even governments that insist they ‘never negotiate with terrorists’, such as Russia, the United States and Israel, cannot consistently adhere to this policy due to the political costs involved (sacrificing hostages) and the low, long-term chances of success. For a bibliographic review and an analysis based on mathematical game-theory models to demonstrate that a no-negotiations policy has a poor chance of succeeding, see Bapat (2006 : 213

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Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

two areas of Unity state: Bentiu, the state capital, and the town of Leer. 3 Between December 2013 and May 2014, these two locations successively came under attack and repeatedly changed hands between pro-government and rebel forces. Following a pattern replicated in many cities across Unity, Upper Nile and Jonglei states, offensives often triggered an early retreat by the military force in place, leaving, as Human Rights Watch put it, ‘civilians behind to face the brunt of attacks from forces bent on pillage and revenge’ ( Human Rights Watch, 2014 : 21). In Bentiu

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

Emergency Appeal for Syria, Gaza and the West Bank ’, www.unrwa.org/newsroom/press-releases/unrwa-launches-us-800-million-emergency-appeal-syria-gaza-and-west-bank (accessed 2 May 2018 ). UNRWA ( 2018b ), Health Department: Annual Report 2017 ( Amman : UNRWA ). UNRWA ( 2018c ), ‘ Pledges to UNRWA’s Programmes (Cash and In-kind) – Overall Donor Ranking as 31 December 2017 ’, www.unrwa.org/sites/default/files/overalldonor_ranking.pdf (accessed 10 May 2018 ). UNRWA ( n.d.a ), ‘ United States: A Long

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

mostly focuses on trends in the absolute numbers of attacks, comparing them across time and across country operating contexts. 3 To the extent that comparisons are made based on estimates of the rates of attacks on aid workers, these comparisons are with on-the-job death rates in hazardous civilian professions in the United States ( Stoddard et al. , 2006 : 4). Comparisons are not made with the risks faced by the wider civilian population. More generally, we know that civilian-protection activities are often targeted based on standardised categories of

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intervention. In 2011, a Samaritan’s Purse employee sued her organisation in the United States after being kidnapped in Darfur the previous year. The first such case in Europe happened in 2015, when Steve Dennis sued the Norwegian Refugee Council after he was kidnapped in Kenya. In France, the Karachi case (an attack in which Naval Group employees were killed) demonstrated the potential legal risk from criminal or terrorist actions. The courts stated that Naval Group should have anticipated the risk and taken appropriate measures to ensure that the attack did not happen: By

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Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

). Betts , A. and Bloom , L . ( 2014 ), ‘ Humanitarian Innovation: The State of the Art ’, in OCHA Policy and Studies Series ( New York : United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs ). Boltanski , L. and Chiapello , E . ( 2005 ), The New Spirit of Capitalism ( London and New York : Verso . Original edition , 1999 ). BOND ( 2003 ), Joint statement by members of the International Global Security and Development Network on the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), ‘A

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From policy to law to regulation

This book explains the beginnings of net neutrality regulation in the United States and Europe, and some of the current debate over access to Specialised Services: fast lanes with higher Quality of Service (QoS). It examines the new European law of 2015 and the interaction between that law and interception/privacy. The book takes a deep dive into UK self- and co-regulation of net neutrality. In each of the national case studies, initial confusion at lack of clarity in net neutrality laws gave way to significant cases, particularly since 2014, which have given regulators the opportunity to clarify their legislation or regulation. The majority of such cases relate to mobile net neutrality, and in particular so-called 'zero rating' practices. The book compares results and proposes a regulatory toolkit for those jurisdictions that intend effective practical partial or complete implementation of net neutrality. It sets out a future research agenda for exploring implementation of regulation. The book outlines competition policy's purpose, referring to the exceptionally rigorous recent analysis of competition law suitability to regulate net neutrality by Maniadaki. Having analysed regulatory tools with little chance of success, it then examines what communications regulators actually do: regulating telecoms access based on the UK case study. The book considers whether zero rating poses a serious challenge to Open Internet use. It explores some of the wider international problems of regulating the newest manifestation of discrimination: zero rating. The book also considers the various means by which government can regulate net neutrality.