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So what went wrong?

Aboriginal people, hospitals with a professional staff of nurses and doctors made no sense. In addition, the Western approach of treating illness did not fit with the understanding of holistic healthcare. Before her nurses were sent to Australia, Florence Nightingale conducted research about the health of Aboriginal Australians. Her interest in Indigenous health was established during a meeting with Sir George Grey, ‘who had discussed with her the apparent deterioration and gradual disappearance of native races after contact with white civilisation’.13 Nightingale applied

in Colonial caring

War Office file, WO 399/5023. 18 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister on the Western Front 1914–1915 (Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1915). 19 Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 [1975]): 9. 20 Claire Tylee, The Great War and Women’s Consciousness:  Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women’s Writings, 1914–64 (Houndmills and London: Macmillan, 1990): 19–46. 21 Michael Paris, Warrior Nation:  Images of War in British Popular Culture, 1850–2000 (London: Reaktion Books, 2000), passim. On wartime

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914

association’s journal in 1903. On 27 September 1914, shortly after the outbreak of the First World War, Gould joined the Australian Imperial force (AIF) as matron of the No. 2 Australian General Hospital (AGH). She and six other nurses arrived in Alexandria on 4 December, remaining there long enough to nurse casualties from the Battle of Gallipoli (from April 1915 to January 1916). She finally returned to Australia in 1919, after a stint on the Western Front and the award of a Royal Red Cross (1st Class) and was discharged from the AIF at the age of fifty-seven, at which

in Colonial caring

initiatives, such as the Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP) and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), implemented by the Nigerian Ministry of Health and National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) with support from international NGOs, have been viewed with suspicion by some as postcolonial western interventions. In northern Nigeria, rather than legitimating state control of its citizens and promoting feelings of national

in The politics of vaccination

‘pluck’ and worth, offered themselves for military nursing service in their tens of thousands. Some were so wealthy and powerful that, far from finding themselves barred by parental – or any other – authority, they were able, in the early months of war, to take entire hospital units overseas to France and Belgium. It was only in early 1915, after the official military medical and nursing services had established a structured network of hospitals and transport services on the Western 29 Independent ladies Front, that such volunteer units began to come under more

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

, families and local communities. American nurses who worked in Puerto Rico were full participants in the colonial agenda. These nurses not only understood the expectation that they would support the colonial mission, but they agreed with that mission and worked hard to introduce American-style nursing into the Puerto Rican culture. Trained nurses believed theirs was a profession that could transform a culture through women’s education, scientific medicine and proper hygiene. Nurses in public and mission hospitals all preached the same gospel of professionalism and of

in Colonial caring
Polio in Eastern Europe

-making of Eastern European polio vaccine use. In the wake of the threat against the bodies of their citizens and their modernist projects, with a particular, ideological and practical emphasis on disease prevention, most Eastern European countries introduced the Salk vaccine without much public or professional deliberation. This set them apart from many of their western counterparts, where, despite intense state involvement in polio prevention

in The politics of vaccination
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation

the twentieth century it became a cornerstone for major transformations in vaccine production capacity and regarding the use of vaccines to fight other diseases in Brazil. I see these vaccines as complex sociotechnical constructs involving many different phenomena: the interactions of microorganisms, culture media and other physico-chemical and biological components that produce substances with alleged or proven immunisation effectiveness

in The politics of vaccination

Nigerians for conversion purposes. In many areas, this continued after independence. Yet as Thomas Csordas argues, in the post-colonial world, the Catholic Church was operating under new conditions, which included a ‘rejection of the missionary work associated with colonialism’.9 While changes in sub-Saharan Africa after independence bore a distinct colonial legacy of education and Western medical facilities, there is a broader narrative to consider that includes how critical moments in specific times and places produced specific practices.10 Diana Solano and Anne Marie

in Colonial caring
The case of the Netherlands

and avoiding any changes were at the heart of the Institute's strategy. There was little or no interest in developing markets outside the Netherlands – a non-commercial culture which some members of staff would later find uncongenial. 18 In the mid-1960s, and in parallel with many institutions elsewhere, RIV turned its attention to two other viral diseases: measles and rubella (German measles). As with polio vaccine

in The politics of vaccination