Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

enterprise of healthcare’.168 Like many 128 The making of British bioethics ‘products of the welfare state’, Kennedy was influenced by the leftist politics of the 1960s and 1970s. In addition to American bioethicists, his calls for outside involvement drew on Ivan Illich’s critique of paternalism and reiterated the civil rights belief that ‘we should respect each person’s autonomy, his power to reach his own ­decisions and act on them’.169 This political background and his enthusiasm for the welfare state ensured that Kennedy was no fan of the Conservative government

in The making of British bioethics
The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958

In addition to epidemics, political crises continuously agitated EP public life in the spring of 1958. There were three chief points of contention. First, provincial autonomy: many Bengalis asked, why should the elected government in Dacca be unable to appoint its own officials and commit provincial resources without waiting on orders from distant ministers and bureaucrats in the West? Second, official language: why should the Bangla

in The politics of vaccination
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colonialism and oppression, but linked cultural determination to political autonomy. Its final resolution declared: We maintain that the growth of culture is dependent upon the termination of such shameful practices in this twentieth century as colonialism, the oppression of weaker peoples and racialism

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain

sold locally in Trinidad and was used on floors and furniture at the San Fernando Hospital. The focus on the development of compounds ready for the market shows clearly that the emphasis on ‘fundamental research’ in the original discussions of the CPRC and at the opening of the Trinidad laboratory did not mean that applied science and practical issues were to be neglected. Describing the work of the laboratory as ‘fundamental research’ allowed Wiggins the autonomy to pursue long-term and in-depth studies in organic chemistry if he wished. It did

in Science at the end of empire
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three months of aerial attacks, NATO stood victorious and a major international troop presence restored relative calm to the province. The Kosovo War led to intensified discussion in Europe and the United States over the need for increased European defence spending and operational efficiency within the alliance and over the prospects of more ‘outof-area’ peacekeeping or peacemaking operations, such as in the ‘former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia’ in 2001. European efforts to achieve greater defence autonomy (see also Chapter 9) met with initial scepticism by the

in Destination Europe

unexpected to find that when French bishops began to make concerted efforts to bring the regulars under tighter control these strongly resisted the challenge to their customary autonomy. The regulars appeared increasingly willing to become involved in disputes with bishops, partly because they were genuinely hopeful of papal support for their claims of privilege. Equally, however, they were goaded towards action by the ever more militant stance of the bishops. To some extent, regulars believed themselves forced to defend their territories of pastoral care since the

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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changed as they moved through the female life cycle and their status was affected by the transition from wife to widow. Thus, despite the view of the church that widows were miserabiles personae, society accorded widows greater autonomy than other categories of women. Married women, who theoretically were ‘covered’ by their husbands, were nevertheless often involved in the religious benefaction of their families, both natal and marital. The role of wives in land alienations was often to give legitimacy to joint grants, because the involvement of a wife was in some

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
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mining and the increasing reliance on winding machinery as the demand for coal grew and deep mining expanded, for instance, reduced the autonomy of mineworkers to determine their own work routines and rhythms. Legal changes were also significant. ‘Special rules’ and increased supervision of workers intended to improve safety at mines similarly affected miners’ ability to choose how they worked, while employers’ liability and compensation laws designed to protect injured employees laid the basis for greater discrimination against ‘at risk’ workers in the future. Yet we

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
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autonomy’ already achieved, without letting it proceed to independence. The same held for Montenegro, in a change from the days of Milosevic’s rule in Belgrade, when the West cautiously encouraged Montenegran independence. The international community would also try to maintain Bosnia and Herzegovina and the ‘former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia’ as intact countries. It was likely to maintain a military and civilian presence in the region for a long time to come, in spite of the high costs and simply because withdrawal could be even more costly in the form of wars and

in Destination Europe

, ‘Erneuerung der Universität’, Die Wandlung, 1 (1945/1946), pp. 95–96. 51  Ibid., pp. 96–97. 104 Humboldt and the modern German university be rebuilt. He hoped that the autonomy and the external structures could live on, and also that the students would return and that the conditions for research and tuition would be similar to those that had existed before. But none of this would entail any renewal. Instead, he declared: This renewal can really only come about through the work of individuals, through researchers and students, in the community that is made up of their

in Humboldt and the modern German university