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Open Access (free)
Richard Bellamy

ascribed status justifying seeing some as the natural servants of others, that individuals should be treated as moral equals, able to act as responsible and autonomous agents free from the domination of others. However, different versions of the rule of law cash out this linkage between equality and autonomy in different ways. One version, surveyed in section 2, argues that the key lies in the law having a certain form: namely in being

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Judith Squires

been compromised in its theoretical formulation by the importation of classical or patriarchal norms, and the third suggests that, although the public–private distinction proposed by liberalism may in theory be gender-neutral, liberal regimes have in practice worked against the interests of women. The first critique focuses on the question of subjectivity, claiming the liberal discourse of individual autonomy to be prescriptive

in Political concepts
Will Leggett

notion of the post-traditional individual has elements that should be attractive to progressives. If a core goal for the Left has been creating the conditions that allow for individual autonomy as human fulfilment, then Giddens’s reflective, creative individual would seem to be true to that tradition. There are similarities here with MacIntyre’s richer version of human fulfilment

in The Third Way and beyond
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

state facilitate this tightening of the global/local relationship for countries occupying different positions in the global system’.9 In this context, Held argues that relations of economic, political and cultural interdependencies across the globe – and more so in Europe – are undermining the sovereignty and autonomy of states in all aspects of their security (and elsewhere).10 Closely linked with this process is the emergence of new states in Europe, and hence the need to trace the components of the new European system. At the same time, revision of the economic and

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Arantza Gomez Arana

Commission. However, if the issue is somewhat less sensitive – for example, the issue of cooperation with a region like Latin America – then the Council tends to be more likely to give the Commission more autonomy to negotiate agreements and policies. Qualified majority voting By the 1980s, the EU consisted of twelve member states. With a view to increasing the number of decisions accepted avoiding vetos, the Single European Act (1986) started to introduce changes such as QMV in relation to issues such as trade in goods. With each enlargement of the EU, more EU policy

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Brian White

poses a major challenge to foreign policy analysts. State-centricity is further challenged by related processes like interdependence and transnationalism which directly challenge the autonomy of states and their ability to control outcomes (Keohane and Nye 1977 ). Significantly, both state-centric and state-as-actor assumptions have been undermined by what Keohane and Nye refer to as transgovernmentalism. This denotes the

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

socialists and other trade unionists. In the Soviet zone of occupation, the autonomy of these groups was perceived as potentially dangerous to the claims of the Communists to be the ‘leading party’, and they were swiftly disbanded by the Soviet authorities. [See also: fascism] anti-Semitism The term in its literal sense means hostility towards ‘Semites’: people from the Middle East defined

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

(French-speaking) population. Such groups may polarise around language, race and religion. ‘Regional nationalism’ is another sub-species of nationalism. It refers to a claim for regional autonomy, which nevertheless stops short of outright independence. A good example would be Catalan nationalism in Spain or the Northern League in Italy. In practice regionalism and nationalism often converge because

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
M. Anne Brown

this liberal, or simply modern, orientation to life, what balances the particularism of individual autonomy is the universality of our status as individuals. Recognising our common vulnerability and, for most contemporary renderings of this story on the basis of our individual but common autonomy, using the processes of our common reason, we join together in society. This universality may be more substantive, so that we share specific rights (to life, liberty and property) simply because we are all autonomous individuals. Or the nature of universality may be more

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Between international relations and European studies
Ben Tonra and Thomas Christiansen

reflected in the institutional arrangements based on the principle of unanimity. Indeed, the very pillar structure of the EU treaties – separating the ‘Community pillar’ from the special regime that governs CFSP and parts of Justice and Home Affairs – is a hallmark of an arrangement in which member states have sought to minimise the role of supranational institutions and preserve national autonomy. And yet

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy