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tenure of lands by a combination of money and goods in payment. When Muriel granted the lands to Emma she received a peplum, and her daughter Lecia, on confirming this gift, some sandals. The lands were to be held by a render of 2s 110 countergifts and affidation annually after Emma’s death by her heirs.28 These agreements of Lecia de Munteni and her mother, Muriel, with Emma Ravenildescroft suggest the variety of countergifts and that a countergift could apparently be a payment. When husbands and wives were involved in joint actions both could receive countergifts

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm

images of the text. The Wonders of the East in the Beowulf manuscript describes a polyglot race called the Donestre, who speak the languages of all peoples and use this skill to lure strangers to their death: ‘When they encounter someone from a foreign country, they name him and his kinsmen with the names of acquaintances; and with false words they trick him and seize him, and after that eat all of him except for the head; and then they sit and weep over the head

in Dating Beowulf
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Beowulf translations by Seamus Heaney and Thomas Meyer

hearmdagas hearde ondrede wælfylla worn werudes egesan hyðo ond hæftnyd. Heofon rece swealg. (3150–5) (so too a death-dirge a solitary Geatish woman for Beowulf, cruelly bound, she sang sorrowful, earnestly of fortune that she for herself days of harm fiercely dreaded

in Dating Beowulf
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On Anglo-Saxon things

fascination with the blade that melts like ice at the turning of the seasons, the candle clock that burns too swiftly, the stone monument that crumbles and fades, the bone that endures as a relic, human and animal skin that does or does not display the corruption of death. The second chapter of this book is therefore concerned with the ‘thingness’ of time. By refusing to remain fixed within one form, the speaking creatures in Old English and Anglo-​Latin riddles invite human readers to rethink how our own bodies, as things among other things, may cross categories of age

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
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wives witness as daughters and mothers of male attestors.90 In 1172 Alexandria, as a widow, and after the death of her son, again granted a charter in favour of Stixwould, which lists nine female witnesses and thirty men.91 When Alexandria’s son had previously granted a confirmation charter at about the same date as his mother’s grant there was only one female witness.92 Such group female attestations show the importance of kin connections, the definition that marital status gave to women, and the role of witnesses as guardians of the social memory of the occasion

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm

is one of the most common causes of death in road accidents around here. On a foggy night in the fens it is still quite easy to imagine Grendel creeping up the hill to the village under cover of darkness, looming out of the thick, white mist, and appearing at the window. There could well be something ‘out there’ in the fens, precisely because the fens still feel so powerfully ‘out there’ – so alien, so unwelcoming. Grendel's entrance in the poem – one of the most effectively terrifying passages in all literature, to my mind – is all the more spine-chilling when I

in Dating Beowulf
A queer history

the Scilly Isles, located off the south-western coast of Cornwall. 10 The start of the following year, 1919, was a time of great turmoil. Both H.D. and her then husband, the writer Richard Aldington, had been pursuing other romantic entanglements, and H.D.'s led to a pregnancy; during her convalescence, she contracted Spanish influenza. 11 When Bryher visited, she was shocked to find H.D. on the brink of death. Her landlady

in Dating Beowulf
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identified as his wife when they were involved in actions against Waltham Abbey.147 When Margaret granted a document in her own name, possibly after the death of Roger, she is described as Margerie filia Aluffi’ de Merch’; the seal which is appended to the charter bears a filia designation; she quitclaimed lands which may have been of her inheritance. In return the monks gave her one mark, and her two sons half a mark each.148 A cartulary copy of a later grant to the canons of Waltham Abbey by Margaret introduces it as Carta Mylonis de Bray. Confirmatio Margarete matris

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm

response was to oppose the attempts at forced conversion, to the point of death. This martyr-like response to Christian violence became the preferred mode of Jewish behavior, thereby serving as one of the characteristics of Jewish self-definition. Moreover, in many cases, Jews anticipated the onslaught by Christians and killed themselves before the latter succeeded in forcibly converting them or in killing them. In this way, a considerable number of Jews killed themselves and even their families and children. The generation that survived the First Crusade, and which

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
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The wall texts of a Percy family manuscript and the Poulys Daunce of St Paul’s Cathedral

’, ‘Reignes of the Kinges of England’, Siege of Thebes, and Troy Book; William Cornish’s A Treatise between Information and Truth; John Skelton’s ‘On the Death of the Earl of Northumberland’; the anonymous Le assemble de dyeus; the anonymous ‘The blsyoure of the arms of kyngis’, which describes the arms of various kings; William Peeris’s metrical chronicle of the Percy family; and, of course, the Tudor-Percy emblem placed between two sets of wall texts. Overall, the manuscript includes works that provide advice on governance and moral authority, and others that speak to the

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England