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Amikam Nachmani

Lebanon; the loss of British and French influence in the Middle East and North Africa. Only the dispatch of American and British forces to Jordan and Lebanon managed to reassure Turkey. The country collaborated fully by providing bases on its territory (Adana) from which these forces could take off. 2 It is significant to note the declaration of then US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles in the autumn of 1957. It was just few months before Syria and Egypt united (February 1958), and before the marines landed in Beirut, but Egyptian troops were

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Environmental enumeration, justice, and apprehension
Nicholas Shapiro, Nasser Zakariya and Jody A. Roberts

proximate source and not a foundational hazard. The engineers appreciated the data. They wanted this data. They would use this data to fix the problem. And, after all, the engineers were the only ones expert enough to translate this data into a­ ction – ­to decide what numbers indicated real versus imagined problems. In this uptake, the data generated by the community simultaneously reconfigured the nature of the problem, the possible solutions, and those with the authority to manage this process. Following the advice of its engineers, the company did eventually make an

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Theorising Arctic hierarchies
Elana Wilson Rowe

 way: There is no question that Norway advances Norwegian interests first in the Arctic. They have been successful in marketing Tromsø as a locus for Arctic cooperation and they are definitely a big Arctic player. Russia and Canada are the geographically bigger northern states, and Norway navigates the waters between these two well. But then if you look at Norway’s northern population, economy/​wealth and the size of the sea areas that Norway manages, Norway is big too. (76) Theorising Arctic hierarchies     73 Another North American observer noted that Norway has worked

in Arctic governance
Jonathan Purkis

address the wider implications of instrumental approaches within society. In particular, the work of Ulrich Beck (1992) and Beck et al. (1994) – who might loosely be described as the ‘reflexive modernisation school’ – suggests that recent decades have witnessed a radicalisation of the very processes that formed modernity. So, as societies become aware of their own contradictions (such as pollution, health scares, addictions and stress at work), their policies become less instrumental and are increasingly organised around managing these difficulties. This is the era of

in Changing anarchism
Colin Craig

harm reduction with methadone, however, amounts to the replacement of heroin with an opioid analogue which has few of heroin’s finer qualities such as a sense of euphoria. This is a triumph for the temperance-minded amongst us who blanch at the idea that ‘treatment’ might also be pleasurable. Thus it is that an impartial observer of methadone treatment programmes would observe that very few ‘patients’ manage to avoid the continued use of heroin on top of the State-sponsored dependency formed by methadone use. Needle exchange schemes in many Western nations have

in Changing anarchism
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

medicine, ‘pagan’ mysticism and general irrationalism. This brings us to a central conflict within the green outlook, which is its attitude to reason and rationality. Although greens claim to uphold a uniquely science-based ideology, they harbour a deep and abiding suspicion of the scientific tradition and its rational and mechanistic understanding of the universe as a universe that can be analysed and understood rather than

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Graeme Kirkpatrick

societies this function increasingly passed to science and technology, where it was justified with reference to efficiency. In The Dialectic of Enlightenment ( 1997 ), Adorno and Horkheimer suggest that in what they called the ‘totally administered society’, the contradictions of capitalism were cancelled by being managed through strategies of knowing manipulation that secure a culture of compliant consumerism. At the heart of this social system is identity-thinking – the principle that things can be grasped quantitatively and thereby brought under technical control

in Technical politics
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

sixth of Iraq’s population). But it faces grave problems, whose solutions entail cooperation with Turkey against the PKK, for it is Ankara that has enabled the zone to survive its difficulties with Baghdad. During the 1990s Iraq itself was under siege, and not only denied the zone foodstuffs and medicines, but left it open to incursion and agricultural theft. The zone receives Western aid supplies (150 million dollars annually) through the Turkish border. In effect, this dependency requires the Kurds to make do with autonomy, rather than statehood: local Kurds fear

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Thomas Robb

which would harm the social welfare programmes that the Labour government was both committed to and electorally reliant upon. Healey’s thinking was based on good foundations given that Dr Johannes Witteveen, the Managing Director of the IMF, had told Healey in November 1975 that any loans provided to the UK would be conditioned on the British government enacting large public expenditure cutbacks.13 Reinforcing this position was the fact that only a week after Healey had proffered his advice to Callaghan, Witteveen reiterated a similar warning to him.14 Callaghan

in A strained partnership?
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

resistance, after the Second World War he joined the Socialist Party (SFIO), but broke with the party over his opposition to the Algerian War. A prominent member of various left-wing groups, Bérégovoy played a leading role in the Parti Socialiste (PS) as it consolidated 1969–71. One of Mitterrand’s closest supporters, Bérégovoy managed the PS co-operation with the Communist Party (PCF). He failed, though, to revive the 1972

in The politics today companion to West European Politics