Lebanon; the loss of British and French influence in the Middle East and North Africa. Only the dispatch of American and British forces to Jordan and Lebanon managed to reassure Turkey. The country collaborated fully by providing bases on its territory (Adana) from which these forces could take off. 2
It is significant to note the declaration of then US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles in the autumn of 1957. It was just few months before Syria and Egypt united (February 1958), and before the marines landed in Beirut, but Egyptian troops were
Environmental enumeration, justice, and apprehension
Nicholas Shapiro, Nasser Zakariya and Jody A. Roberts
proximate source and not a
foundational hazard. The engineers appreciated the data. They wanted this data.
They would use this data to fix the problem. And, after all, the engineers were
the only ones expert enough to translate this data into a ction – to decide what
numbers indicated real versus imagined problems. In this uptake, the data generated by the community simultaneously reconfigured the nature of the problem, the possible solutions, and those with the authority to manage this process.
Following the advice of its engineers, the company did eventually make an
There is no question that Norway advances Norwegian interests first
in the Arctic. They have been successful in marketing Tromsø as a
locus for Arctic cooperation and they are definitely a big Arctic player.
Russia and Canada are the geographically bigger northern states, and
Norway navigates the waters between these two well. But then if you
look at Norway’s northern population, economy/wealth and the size of
the sea areas that Norway manages, Norway is big too. (76)
Theorising Arctic hierarchies 73
Another North American observer noted that Norway has worked
address the wider implications of
instrumental approaches within society. In particular, the work of Ulrich Beck
(1992) and Beck et al. (1994) – who might loosely be described as the ‘reflexive
modernisation school’ – suggests that recent decades have witnessed a radicalisation of the very processes that formed modernity. So, as societies become
aware of their own contradictions (such as pollution, health scares, addictions
and stress at work), their policies become less instrumental and are increasingly
organised around managing these difficulties. This is the era of
harm reduction with methadone, however, amounts to the
replacement of heroin with an opioid analogue which has few of heroin’s finer
qualities such as a sense of euphoria. This is a triumph for the temperance-minded
amongst us who blanch at the idea that ‘treatment’ might also be pleasurable.
Thus it is that an impartial observer of methadone treatment programmes would
observe that very few ‘patients’ manage to avoid the continued use of heroin on
top of the State-sponsored dependency formed by methadone use.
Needle exchange schemes in many Western nations have
medicine, ‘pagan’ mysticism and general irrationalism.
This brings us to a central conflict
within the green outlook, which is its attitude to reason and rationality.
Although greens claim to uphold a uniquely science-based ideology, they
harbour a deep and abiding suspicion of the scientific tradition and its
rational and mechanistic understanding of the universe as a universe that
can be analysed and understood rather than
societies this function increasingly passed to science and technology, where it was justified with reference to efficiency.
In The Dialectic of Enlightenment ( 1997 ), Adorno and Horkheimer suggest that in what they called the ‘totally administered society’, the contradictions of capitalism were cancelled by being managed through strategies of knowing manipulation that secure a culture of compliant consumerism. At the heart of this social system is identity-thinking – the principle that things can be grasped quantitatively and thereby brought under technical control
sixth of Iraq’s population). But it faces grave problems, whose solutions entail cooperation with Turkey against the PKK, for it is Ankara that has enabled the zone to survive its difficulties with Baghdad. During the 1990s Iraq itself was under siege, and not only denied the zone foodstuffs and medicines, but left it open to incursion and agricultural theft. The zone receives Western aid supplies (150 million dollars annually) through the Turkish border. In effect, this dependency requires the Kurds to make do with autonomy, rather than statehood: local Kurds fear
would harm the social welfare programmes that the Labour government was
both committed to and electorally reliant upon. Healey’s thinking was based on
good foundations given that Dr Johannes Witteveen, the Managing Director of
the IMF, had told Healey in November 1975 that any loans provided to the UK
would be conditioned on the British government enacting large public expenditure cutbacks.13 Reinforcing this position was the fact that only a week after
Healey had proffered his advice to Callaghan, Witteveen reiterated a similar
warning to him.14
resistance, after the Second
World War he joined the Socialist Party (SFIO), but broke with the party
over his opposition to the Algerian War. A prominent member of various
left-wing groups, Bérégovoy played a leading role in the Parti
Socialiste (PS) as it consolidated 1969–71. One of Mitterrand’s
closest supporters, Bérégovoy managed the PS co-operation with the
Communist Party (PCF). He failed, though, to revive the 1972