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This text aims to fill a gap in the field of Middle Eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It begins with an overview of the rules and features of the Middle East regional system—the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. The book goes on to analyse foreign-policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, it goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union, and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.

favoured insiders over outsiders.’ In Italy, the increasing dualism of the labour market has been depicted as an insider–outsider problem, created by the ‘excessive’ protection of standard employment relations. Consequently, the recent legislation aimed at reducing the regulation of the labour market has been presented as a necessary step towards greater equality. The second issue relates to the search for viable models to address the challenges of technological change in a globalised and competitive environment. Here again, the decade-long stagnation of Italian

in Making work more equal

and Quack, 2003). When applied to labour market organisation, this stresses the idea that labour supply and demand are the result not of the application of abstract economic norms, but of mutually interlocking spheres of social structuring of the opportunities and constraints facing work organisation and workers (see Rubery, 1992). Essentially, societal institutionalism argues that capitalism is embedded at a national–societal level in mutually reinforcing and interlocking ‘spheres’ of political economy, in ways which create national ‘logics’ of employment relations

in Making work more equal

, V. A. (1995) ‘Towards a new Swedish model of collective bargaining and politics’, in C. Crouch and F. Traxler (eds), Organised Industrial Relations in Europe: What Future? (Aldershot: Averbury). Pontusson, J. (1995) ‘From comparative public policy to political economy: putting political institutions in their place and taking interests seriously’, Comparative Political Studies, 28 (1). Pontusson, J. and Swenson, P. (1996) ‘Labor markets, production strategies, and wage bargaining institutions: the Swedish employer offensive in comparative perspective’, Comparative

in In search of social democracy
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The study of European Union relations with Mercosur

1 Introduction: the study of European Union relations with Mercosur Introduction This monograph seeks to examine the motivations that determine the European Union’s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), which is the most important relationship that the EU has with another regional economic integration organization. In order to investigate these motivations (or lack thereof), this volume will examine the contribution of the main policy- and decision-makers, the European Commission and the Council of Ministers, as well as the different

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
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This book deals with the institutional framework in post-socialist, after-empire spaces. It consists of nine case studies and two contributions of a more theoretical nature. Each of these analytical narratives sheds some light on the micro-politics of organised violence. After 1990, Serbs and Croats were competing over access to the resources needed for institution building and state building. Fear in turn triggered ethnic mobilisation. An 'unprofessional' riot of Serbs in the Krajina region developed into a professional war between Serbs and Croats in Croatia, in which several thousand died and several hundred thousand people were forcefully expelled from their homes. The Herceg-Bosnian style of resistance can be surprisingly effective. It is known that most of the heroin transported along the Balkans route passes through the hands of Albanian mafia groups; that this traffic has taken off since summer 1999. The concept of Staatnation is based on the doctrine according to which each 'nation' must have its own territorial State and each State must consist of one 'nation' only. The slow decline and eventual collapse of the Soviet and the Yugoslav empires was partly triggered, partly accompanied by the quest for national sovereignty. Dagestan is notable for its ethnic diversity and, even by post-Soviet standards, its dramatic economic deprivation. The integrative potential of cooperative movements at the republican, the regional and the inter-state level for the Caucasus is analyzed. The book also offers insights into the economics of ending violence. Finally, it addresses the question of reconciliation after ethnic cleansing.

Introduction and overview

employment and quality of work more equal. Various fiscal, labour market and social policy reforms risk creating or increasing inequalities, expanding precarious forms of employment and exacerbating the social exclusion of vulnerable workforce groups. Such reforms include the marginalisation of organised labour through changes to industrial relations, the marketisation and outsourcing of public services, the weakening of employment rights, cuts to welfare entitlements, and the privatisation of responsibilities for family and care provision. Moreover, employers may also

in Making work more equal
An instituted economic process approach

–distribution–production configuration. reflected in the emergence of supermarket own-label products. The third raises the question of how the organisation of retail markets, and their transformation, alter the way demand is instituted as between end consumer and retailer. Withering wholesale Covent Garden market provides an excellent example of the evolution of markets as a process of reconfiguring demand–supply relations over the long duration (Braudel, 1982), although altogether exceptional for its dominant metropolitan position and heightened significance as an import market of global produce

in Innovation by demand
The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’

labour and employment relations needs to be broadened. What is more, equal opportunities approaches must be more clearly linked to systems of labour market organisation, policy and public discourses (Fagan and Rubery, 1996; Rubery and Fagan, 1995). While trade unions have involved groups such as migrants through various social inclusion strategies – in some cases with the help of state resources – the overall system of welfare and social service support has been constrained and uneven. We need to comprehend that these economic and social regulatory characteristics

in Making work more equal
Implications for jobs and inequality

have grown. The greater use of business strategies that re-allocate workers across networked organisations has important implications for employment relations and for wages, job quality and inequality.1 More than a decade ago, in a series of important essays written with colleagues,  Jill Rubery drew attention to the blurring of firm boundaries and the fragmenting of work in the UK. Rubery was already a leading scholar of labour  market flexibility and the rise of temporary and contingent jobs in  Europe.  In the research on the fragmentation of work, she moved

in Making work more equal