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Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic

of these at once; a black Atlantic culture whose themes and techniques transcend ethnicity and nationality to produce something new and, until now, unremarked. Political energy animates Gilroy’s academic challenge. He sets out to expose the dangers as he sees it of contemporary nationalism: whether academic or popular, implicit or explicit, black or white in focus, Gilroy sees it as socially and politically undesirable. Gilroy’s concept of a black Atlantic is then offered as a political and cultural corrective, which argues the cross-national, cross-ethnic basis

in Postcolonial contraventions
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Competing claims to national identity

7 Conclusion Competing claims to national identity In a seminal work published in 1999, Misha Glenny attempted to plot the Balkan history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Glenny noted that in the 1830s Croatian nationalism began an oscillation between pan-Slavic, proAustrian and anti-Serb orientations. He concluded that this cleavage was the result of ‘the multiple cultural and civilisational influences that had influenced the Croats over many centuries [which was] inevitably reflected in Croatian political nationalism’.1 Glenny thus offered an

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Rousseau’s and nationalism

4 A civic profession of faith: Rousseau’s and nationalism When Heinrich Heine, the German poet, visited Italy in 1828 he noted in his diary: It is as if World History is seeking to become spiritual … she has a great task. What it is? It is emancipation. Not just the emancipation of the Irish, the Greeks, the Jews and the Blacks of the West Indies. No, the emancipation of the whole world, especially in Europe, where the peoples have reached maturity. (Heine quoted in Gell 1998: 13) In seeking national self-determination Heine was preaching a new doctrine, one

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Turkish nationalism and Islam Turkey professes to be a secular state, the only such country in the Middle East and the only secular Muslim country in the world. Turkey is a living example, though not without difficulties, of a country whose population is predominantly Muslim but which is not a Muslim state. Ayse Kadioglu supplies a brief but painful enough reminder of the reforms, better called trauma, that the country and its population had experienced, which helps when evaluating the interaction between state and

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
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Towards a teleological model of nationalism

2441Chapter1 16/10/02 8:03 am Page 15 1 What is the nation? Towards a teleological model of nationalism The tradition of the dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living. And just when they seem engaged in revolutionising themselves and things, they anxiously conjure up the spirits of the past to their service and borrow from them names, battle cries and costumes in order to present the new scene of world history in this time honoured disguise and borrowed language. (Henry Tudor in Political Myth) OR SERBIAN AND Croatian nationalists

in Balkan holocausts?

of progress. Hence, ‘the old presuppositions of modernism are losing their hold; but no one is quite sure what new ones will replace them’.3 The ‘great debate’ in nationalism studies, captured at Warwick, is one between so-called ‘primordialists’ and ‘modernists’. Put simply, primordialists argue that the nation derives directly from a priori ethnic groups and is based on kinship ties and ancient heritage. For their part, modernists insist that the nation is an entirely novel form of identity and political organisation, which owes nothing to ethnic heritage and

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Jürgen Habermas and the European left

forms of nationalism the modern age is prone to generate. The key issue, as Habermas saw it, is that the Volksnation , the nation of the people, was a modern democratic invention which crystallised into ‘an efficient mechanism for repudiating everything regarded as foreign, for devaluing other nations, and for excluding national, ethnic, and religious minorities, especially the Jews. In Europe, nationalism became allied with antisemitism, with

in Antisemitism and the left
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An epilogue

At least three points stand out. First, at stake in the exhibition was a break with the formidable influence of prior nationalist art, especially the Orientalism of the Bengal School. If the Bengal School configured a counter-colonial, “pan-Asian” style of narrative painting as part of Swadeshi nationalism (1905–11), while opposing the academic naturalism of narrative art, now a newer disposition

in Subjects of modernity
Theorising the en-gendered nation

postcolonial literatures from 1947, are cast in a gendered mould. Nationalism, which has been so fundamental to the decolonisation process around the world, bears a clear mark for gender, and this gender marking, rather than being referred to a monolithic or transhistorical concept of patriarchy, can be explained as a specific historical development of power defined by sexual difference. To put it more plainly, this book submits that, without this marking for gender, it is well-nigh impossible to conceive of the modern nation. Whether we look at its iconography, its

in Stories of women
Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia

fatalism attached to events as they transpired. Everyone saw their actions as responses, rather than as individual initiatives. Leaders claimed that they were responding to historic injustices, rather than actively creating something new. They also portrayed nationalism as a movement to correct the injustices of the past, rather than advancing a utopian project or a grand vision of the future. The Communist era: 1945–90 In coming to terms with the Communist period, there was certainly much to criticise. Tito’s dictatorial rule relied on a corrupt base of power, and a

in Balkan holocausts?