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endeavours in the discipline. There is, similarly, no fixed definition of democratization. As a non-specialist I reflect here on the uses of democratization most prevalent in my own observations of external pressures for state reform in some southern and eastern African countries. Hence the writer’s exposure to the rhetoric of democratization stems largely from the normative discourse of Western governments and transnational agencies concerning desirable modes of institutional practice – what they often refer to as ‘good governance’ – in the political systems 24

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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Better ‘the Hottentot at the hustings’ than ‘the Hottentot in the wilds with his gun on his shoulder’

. Among the European-ruled states of nineteenth-century South Africa, this was an issue only in the two British colonies. The two Boer republics – the Transvaal and the Orange Free State – granted the franchise to all adult White males, without qualification – but not to any non-White people; for the whole period of their existence, the two republics allowed no formal political rights to the large numbers

in Equal subjects, unequal rights

capable of attracting and accepting a half non-communist and grudgingly pro-European list in the European elections of 1999, the edicts of democratic centralism a thing of the past. Furthermore, its electoral results may be a long way below those of its anti-system heyday, but the terminal collapse predicted since the Eastern bloc cataclysm of 1989/90 and reiterated on a regular basis since had failed to materialise by 1997 (although came a step closer after the 2002 results). Given the presence of the gauche de gauche LO and just as importantly the plethora of non

in The French party system
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exposed to “education” and were still non-compliant could still be depicted as “apathetic”. Similarly, the Ministry accepted that lower immunisation rates were a predictable and rational response to the decline of the disease. Moreover, interactions between authorities and the public showed that there were other costs and risks associated with immunisation that informed parents’ decisions about their children's health. Despite this subjective and vague notion of apathy, the Ministry of Health felt that it would undermine the immunisation programme

in Vaccinating Britain
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The study of European Union relations with Mercosur

contributions of the two institutions. This will make it possible to show the degree of ‘involvement’/‘engagement’ reflected in the EU’s policy towards Mercosur, which is the dependent variable in this study. The analysis offered here examines the development of EU policy towards Mercosur in relation to three key stages: non-institutionalized relations (1986–1990), official relations (1991–1995), and the negotiations for an association agreement (1996–2004 and 2010–present). The degree of engagement will be measured as low, medium or high. The outcome of the measure is

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:

for good citizenship and a healthy degree of participation and interest in the political life of their society. Most non-libertarian political philosophers endorse some principles of political inclusion. Official promotion A final possibility is that the state actively promotes the differences that prompt dislike and disapproval in the institutions of civil society. Policies designed to preserve minority languages, to protect opportunity for religious worship and traditional dress through restrictions on employment legislation and schooling requirements, and to

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Clotilde Escalle’s tales of transgression

resort to violence as a means not of salvation,but of survival.Furthermore,the violence is directed much more often against themselves than against others. These novels are tales of oppression, of violence and abuse, of masochism, of cruelty and despair, of lancinating indifference, and ultimately of  Transgressions and transformation transgression. They portray a world in which love is strikingly absent, if none the less sometimes – nostalgically rather than prospectively – yearned for. They present sex brutally and almost pornographically. They tear the soul

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
A twenty-first century trial?

of a former head of state carried massive significance in terms of the power of law and institutions acting in the name of the international community. As many observers and the prosecution noted, the ghost of Nuremberg had finally risen. The trial proper began on 12 February 2002 and was expected to last up to two years. This chapter considers the principal features of the first war crimes trial of the twenty-first century in terms of personnel and procedures, the alleged crimes, and issues of legality and legitimacy. It also speculates on the narratives or non

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
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The historian and the male witch

likely to be women as men’. 14 Anne Barstow’s views on these historians indicate the potential for polarisation between feminist and non-feminist accounts: Historians were denying that misogyny and patriarchy are valid historical categories and were refusing to treat women as a recognizable historical group. Reading these works is like reading accounts

in Male witches in early modern Europe
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Murphy’s misrecognition of love

all day, brightening against the darkening that was its end. A peristalsis of light, worming its way into the dark. She preferred sitting in the chair, steeping herself in these faint eddies till they made an amnion about her own disquiet. (67) 7 The light suggests a life-force in constant, wavering engagement with death and darkness, it is a sense of contact with a loving mother who brings her infant into the world with attentive, nurturing care as a sun that shines on the something new. There are complex non-engagements, since the room, with its living and dying

in Samuel Beckett and the primacy of love