university planners, selectively, to suit their prejudices for the management of cuts’.
Half-baked or not, the exercise pronounced sixteen Manchester
cost centres above average and awarded rosettes to eleven departments
or subject areas which it regarded as outstanding (these were Clinical
Dentistry, Psychology, Physics, Applied Mathematics, Computer Science, Geography, Social Anthropology, Accountancy, Spanish, History
of Art, and Drama). Some, such as Physics and Computer Science, had
succeeded very well in attracting additional posts in the New Blood
modernity also lead to the structural
retardation of regions supplying natural resources?
By the early nineteenth century, Dutch economic leadership was being
supplanted by British: not only in terms of Europe, but the world. British industrialization was long characterized by the export of raw material or low-value
products, but during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it underwent a
transformatory process of improving labour productivity in agriculture, import
substitution, achieving technical leadership in low-quality consumer goods, and
a vigorous re
expansion in the early modern period, but were only colonized towards 1900.
Again, even within what became extractive imperial dependencies and poor
post-colonial states, there have been huge variations between different regions.
Dutch-ruled Java may have suffered ‘agricultural involution’, but the Chinese port
cities from Penang and Singapore to the Sulu Sea registered rapid economic
growth in the nineteenth century. Likewise, the Punjab and the princely state of
Mysore in the British Indian Empire were much richer than the province of Bihar.
Many of these
, was another.
Walter Ulbricht, the leader of the German Democratic Republic at this
time, used to say that the enemy of the people was on the rooftops in the
form of television antennae.
The Soviet Union felt that it had to gain Western, including American,
recognition of its post-World War II borders, even if the price to be paid
– as in the 1975 Helsinki Final Act (of the Conference on Security and
Co-operation in Europe) – meant the pro forma guarantee of human
rights and the free flow of information. However, formal recognition of
borders or regimes matters
part of the doctrine of good stewardship. Increasingly the latter view gained
strength in the early 1930s, as those then moving into senior posts were
opposed to gambling. William Temple, a future archbishop of Canterbury,
Horseracing and the British, 1919–39
collaborated on a book on gambling and ethics.13 Anti-gambling became
The distribution of strong religious opposition to gambling in the 1920s
was illustrated by resolutions sent in to the 1923 Select Committee on Betting
Duty. Almost all of these came from Nonconformity, and
have wished to find in the writings of the philosophes evidence for
palpably modern or proto-modern developments and have ignored
telling evidence that there was no ‘birth’ of public opinion as such,
but rather a relatively slow evolution of its traditional form,
dependent on time, place and to a degree on the circulation of
printed matter. Habermas’s The Structural Transformation of the
Public Sphere (1989) has been very influential in arguing for the
emergence of a ‘public sphere’ in late Enlightenment France.
According to Habermas, this ‘public sphere’ is to
social tension in society; and (4) a measure of tense personal
relationships between accuser and accused. 3 While helpful, these four categories can and have been
expanded and altered depending on the type of approach taken. 4 Following decades of study
at the structural level of society, a more dynamic, incident-specific
interpretive framework emerged in the 1960s. This approach is most closely
associated with Victor Turner and did much to refine
leadership for bishops throughout Europe.
In reality, these expectations were not fulfilled. Most historians, as well as
those contemporaries best placed to assess their bishops, present a very different picture of the post-Tridentine episcopate in France. Both contemporaries
and historians have frequently drawn attention to abuses within the episcopate,
predictably focusing on the exploits of infamous individuals within its ranks,
such as those who converted to protestantism or who lived particularly scandalous lives. Perhaps this is inevitable, for as one leading
post-Reformation ‘religious darkness was
coming to a close’? For those Dissenters struggling against the
Anglican Church and state, for Huguenots and Jansenists in France
and for other religious minorities across Europe, bitter and at times
bloody religious conflict and persecution were still the order of the
day. From this point of view, claims about the end of the mid-seventeenth-century crisis bringing a vision of peace to Christendom
should not provide legitimation for ignoring or minimizing the
importance of politico-religious conflicts yet to occur in the late
quality as measurable, assessed in relation to defined outcome measures, and best secured by following agreed protocol standards and undertaking regular review. Pre-war clinical medicine had been subject to external constraints and peer discussion, but in issuing guidance post-war specialists and their organisations began to add layers to existing, informal regimes of clinical government. During the late 1980s and the 1990s, that is, elite medical professionals produced national standards to directly inform local protocols (previously devised through experience and