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Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

university planners, selectively, to suit their prejudices for the management of cuts’. Half-baked or not, the exercise pronounced sixteen Manchester cost centres above average and awarded rosettes to eleven departments or subject areas which it regarded as outstanding (these were Clinical Dentistry, Psychology, Physics, Applied Mathematics, Computer Science, Geography, Social Anthropology, Accountancy, Spanish, History of Art, and Drama). Some, such as Physics and Computer Science, had succeeded very well in attracting additional posts in the New Blood and Information

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Paul Warde

modernity also lead to the structural retardation of regions supplying natural resources? By the early nineteenth century, Dutch economic leadership was being supplanted by British: not only in terms of Europe, but the world. British industrialization was long characterized by the export of raw material or low-value products, but during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it underwent a transformatory process of improving labour productivity in agriculture, import substitution, achieving technical leadership in low-quality consumer goods, and a vigorous re

in History, historians and development policy
The case of colonial India and Africa
C. A. Bayly

economic expansion in the early modern period, but were only colonized towards 1900. Again, even within what became extractive imperial dependencies and poor post-colonial states, there have been huge variations between different regions. Dutch-ruled Java may have suffered ‘agricultural involution’, but the Chinese port cities from Penang and Singapore to the Sulu Sea registered rapid economic growth in the nineteenth century. Likewise, the Punjab and the princely state of Mysore in the British Indian Empire were much richer than the province of Bihar. Many of these

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

, was another. Walter Ulbricht, the leader of the German Democratic Republic at this time, used to say that the enemy of the people was on the rooftops in the form of television antennae. The Soviet Union felt that it had to gain Western, including American, recognition of its post-World War II borders, even if the price to be paid – as in the 1975 Helsinki Final Act (of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe) – meant the pro forma guarantee of human rights and the free flow of information. However, formal recognition of borders or regimes matters

in Destination Europe
Mike Huggins

; part of the doctrine of good stewardship. Increasingly the latter view gained strength in the early 1930s, as those then moving into senior posts were opposed to gambling. William Temple, a future archbishop of Canterbury, 103 104 Horseracing and the British, 1919–39 collaborated on a book on gambling and ethics.13 Anti-gambling became Protestant orthodoxy. The distribution of strong religious opposition to gambling in the 1920s was illustrated by resolutions sent in to the 1923 Select Committee on Betting Duty. Almost all of these came from Nonconformity, and

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
S.J. Barnett

too have wished to find in the writings of the philosophes evidence for palpably modern or proto-modern developments and have ignored telling evidence that there was no ‘birth’ of public opinion as such, but rather a relatively slow evolution of its traditional form, dependent on time, place and to a degree on the circulation of printed matter. Habermas’s The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (1989) has been very influential in arguing for the emergence of a ‘public sphere’ in late Enlightenment France. According to Habermas, this ‘public sphere’ is to

in The Enlightenment and religion
Stephen Mitchell

social tension in society; and (4) a measure of tense personal relationships between accuser and accused. 3 While helpful, these four categories can and have been expanded and altered depending on the type of approach taken. 4 Following decades of study at the structural level of society, a more dynamic, incident-specific interpretive framework emerged in the 1960s. This approach is most closely associated with Victor Turner and did much to refine

in Witchcraft Continued
Alison Forrestal

leadership for bishops throughout Europe. In reality, these expectations were not fulfilled. Most historians, as well as those contemporaries best placed to assess their bishops, present a very different picture of the post-Tridentine episcopate in France. Both contemporaries and historians have frequently drawn attention to abuses within the episcopate, predictably focusing on the exploits of infamous individuals within its ranks, such as those who converted to protestantism or who lived particularly scandalous lives. Perhaps this is inevitable, for as one leading

in Fathers, pastors and kings
S.J. Barnett

post-Reformation ‘religious darkness was coming to a close’? For those Dissenters struggling against the Anglican Church and state, for Huguenots and Jansenists in France and for other religious minorities across Europe, bitter and at times bloody religious conflict and persecution were still the order of the day. From this point of view, claims about the end of the mid-seventeenth-century crisis bringing a vision of peace to Christendom should not provide legitimation for ignoring or minimizing the importance of politico-religious conflicts yet to occur in the late

in The Enlightenment and religion
Martin D. Moore

quality as measurable, assessed in relation to defined outcome measures, and best secured by following agreed protocol standards and undertaking regular review. Pre-war clinical medicine had been subject to external constraints and peer discussion, but in issuing guidance post-war specialists and their organisations began to add layers to existing, informal regimes of clinical government. During the late 1980s and the 1990s, that is, elite medical professionals produced national standards to directly inform local protocols (previously devised through experience and

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine