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War, National Debt, and the Capitalized State

, and the endless search for equilibrium prices and Pareto optimality. We do not deny some role for these phenomena and fetishes— real or imaginary. What we do not share is this teleological approach to historical inquiry. First, because it occludes the illegitimate hierarchical effects of organized power and second because our starting point of differential power relations does not permit a teleological reading of history. In short, things can always be otherwise, and part of our task as scholars is to uncover how the present is no natural or progressive derivation

in Debt as Power
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Frontier patterns old and new

they supported 337 churches, maintained assets equivalent to around USD16 million, and sustained 632 pre-school centres and 2 old-age homes. Furthermore, the Church offers a retirement plan for ministers, funeral assistance and life insurance programmes. International links enable Church members from the Caribbean to obtain access to congregations in other countries, particularly Britain and the USA

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
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chap 5 22/3/04 12:53 pm Page 144 5 An uneasy alliance Despite the lamentations of seventeenth-century reformers about the inadequacies of religious belief and practice among the French population, they at least had the satisfaction of knowing that there was no real danger that protestantism would ever again challenge the privileged position of the Catholic church. Catholicism was the religion of France, of the majority of French people and of the royal family. Its clergy composed the first estate and were represented at provincial and national estates; they

in Fathers, pastors and kings

its members owed each other. 3 Meanwhile in the real world, the political agenda was being set by libertarians, 4 with welfare states as their primary targets. In their emphasis on individual freedom, and the capacity of (global) markets to maximise this (while simultaneously optimising economic outcomes), they raised the possibility of self-governing communities of choice – selected by their members for

in Political concepts
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The international system and the Middle East

held abroad, arguably became junior partners of a ‘global bourgeoisie’. Eighty-four per cent of Arab oil earnings was channelled into Western banks and investments. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait between them held $210 billion outside the region in the late 1970s. Saudi Arabia became the largest investor in US banks, treasury bonds and real estate, with $133 billion invested, yielding an income of $10 billion/year. Investment by the Arab Gulf states in the US alone may have eventually reached $1 trillion (Aarts 1994: 3; Vassiliev 1998: 398–404). Such investment in the core

in The international politics of the Middle East
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India, and became involved in the British Bloodstock Agency and the Glasgow Stud at Enfield. The number of yearlings sold by each breeder varied. At the earlier Newmarket July sales, small breeders, selling one or two yearlings, usually represented between 50 and 60 per cent of the vendors. This was probably an attempt to cash in on their assets as soon as possible. At the later Doncaster sales this figure was lower, usually around 40 per cent. Few breeders sold more than ten yearlings. In 1938 only the Aga Khan, Lord Furness, Mr J. W. Harris and four commercial studs

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39

grandson of the first president of the sixteenth century. Harlay became procureur général when Fouquet, prior to his arrest, was induced to resign that office, and set a new standard for political reliability. His son, Achille III, succeeded him as procureur général and became first president in 1689, in recognition of his even more dedicated service. The royal clients Lamoignon and Achille II de Harlay built a sympathetic group of loyalist judges, a political asset in reducing the friction that developed over the principle of the judicial supremacy of the royal council

in Louis XIV and the parlements
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explained that the Centre had been running at a loss, and that the University was pressing him to make it pay. Exploiting intellectual property was as important as making full use of real estate. During the 1980s the University attempted to go into business on its own account by means of a new holding company, and it also set out to invite certain kinds of enterprise – high-tech firms which would directly benefit from scientific expertise – to become neighbours of the University and settle on land close to the Education Precinct. Sceptics wondered whether, in the early

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90

this perspective, Shell’s reorganisation contributed to an enhancement of the company’s learning capacity during the 1990s. While the other two companies have adopted less systematic and broad-based approaches to 2543Chap4 Company structure: ExxonMobil 16/7/03 Figure 4.2 Corporate headquarters Global services: computing, procurement, real estate Source: ExxonMobil (1999b), www.exxon.mobil.com/shareholder_publications/c_fo_99/c_merger.html. Power, coal and minerals Global business lines Refining and supply Lubricants and petroleum specialisms Gas marketing

in Climate change and the oil industry
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The leadership gamble of William Hague

would have been interesting to see how Kenneth Clarke might have exploited the fuel crisis of September 2000. Equally, no one can argue that Hague was an electoral asset to his party. Throughout the Parliament he trailed his party in the opinion polls, sometimes by considerable margins. In April 2001 less than half of Conservative voters thought that their own leader would make the best Prime Minister – the figure for the electorate as a whole was 14 per The leadership gamble of William Hague 51 cent, and later it fell even further.2 Whatever his impact on the

in The Conservatives in Crisis