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Council of Trent did not offer a comprehensive treatment of episcopacy in all its facets. Feeling insufficiently served by Trent, they themselves, therefore, had to supplement its shortcomings. For this reason, a number of works on the officium episcopi were published during the late sixteenth century, envisaged as guidebooks for bishops on the spiritual and practical aspects of their office. The driving forces behind these were, not surprisingly, prelates themselves. A number of them actually produced texts based on their own practical experiences and reflections and

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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of experience’ as reflected in his ‘mythic’ and ‘via negativa’ modes. It is also my aim to highlight, again, the considerable intellectual breadth and sophistication of Thomas’s thought and work in this regard. In addition to this expansion and re-focusing, however, I will argue, in concluding Chapter 7, for a movement in the general emphasis of Thomas’s later ‘religious poetry’ away from the predominating experience of spiritual absence, fragmentation, and despair, towards, increasingly, apprehensions of presence, unity, and hope. I will suggest in the final

in R. S. Thomas
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The scientific world

human happiness but possibly even to human survival. The question remains why Thomas and Peck see such separation as having become destructive. A look at R. S. Thomas’s work suggests that an inability to imagine relationships between subject matter, not only between religion and science, may prove detrimental in at least three ways. The first of these is by making artificial and simple a reality that is complex. Compartmentalisation of thought is, for Thomas, a distortion of our experience of an interrelated reality. If strict categories are tempting because less

in R. S. Thomas
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Enthusiasm and audit

understood how deeply enthusiasm can corrupt. Hence Ahab, in whom Quaker peculiarities, though ‘unoutgrown’, were plainly distorted, and through whom an original impulse to permit general participation in spiritual experience became an urge to dominate, to exercise tyranny over others’ minds. Yet to shy from enthusiasm because in every spiritual experimentalist there is an incipient antinomian would be, as it were, to throw Ishmael out with the saltwater. It would be to ignore in Moby-Dick, and the cultural possibilities it sets up, Ishmael’s urge to see what whaling is

in Enthusiast!
Simone de Beauvoir and a Global Theory of Feminist Recognition

over the world to ensure these projects ( 1948 : 18). In these senses, Beauvoir premises her account of misrecognition on the lived experience of social suffering. Rather than appealing to metanarratives of historical materialism or biological determinism, she submits that it is women's ambiguity, and, in relation to it their trans-cultural need for ‘ethical-spiritual self-creation’ (Vintges 2006 : 214), that

in Recognition and Global Politics

felt, ‘were not framed with any regard for the intellectual life of the country’. The strictures governing the aesthetic and spiritual frames of life within the war-state made every day for Cannan and those with similar concerns one of ‘acute suffering’. He continued: The convention, the icy gaiety, the hypnotic phrases, the affectation of cynicism, which for most men seem to make the situation tolerable, are useless to me. I believe that only the mind and the will can find an issue from this general degradation and that young men also must contribute thought and

in A war of individuals
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200 DISABILITY IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CONCLUSION The Industrial Revolution produced injury, illness and disablement on a large scale and nowhere was this more visible than in coalmining. While the loss of lives in large-scale mining disasters is still commemorated today, and forms part of the cultural memory of coalmining in areas where pits have long since closed down, there are no memorials to the many thousands who were disabled in the industry.1 Yet the experiences of those whose bones were broken, whose bodies were crushed, ‘lamed’ or maimed, or

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
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Spiritualism and the Atlantic divide

with the origins of spiritualism, then – the Fox sisters in upstate New York, Mrs. W.R. Hayden’s first visit to England, Daniel Dunglas Home’s incursions into France and Russia – as I am in the cultural appeal and power, the evident meaning, that this movement proved to have. Instead I’m suggesting instead that the origins of spiritualism themselves help to elucidate its meaning, as well as the ‘experiences, discourses and practices’ that primarily interest Cottom in his work on spiritualism and surrealism.5 Accounts of origins may well be highly significant in

in Special relationships
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Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition

The Enlightenment and religion 5 Italy: Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition This final case study provides another different context of the Enlightenment. The experience of Catholic dissidents in the Italian peninsular provides some similarities with the struggles in France, but the very different politico-religious context of the Italian peninsular means that differences tend to outweigh similarities. Differences aside, the point of this chapter is again to illustrate that broad politico-religious struggle – rather than the actions of the

in The Enlightenment and religion
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence

orthodoxy of the Catholic Church in Ireland, which both fed on and fed into the notion of a ‘spiritual empire’ with Ireland at its centre. One as yet rather uncertain aspect of this appears to correlate with Irish evangelical experience. Transformations in religious practice can be diffuse and their causes difficult to pinpoint. Yet, if there were, as noted, clear transnational elements to the 1859 revival, in the sense that it took place (and was understood as taking place) within a wider evangelical 205 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 205 15/09/2014 11:47 Population

in Population, providence and empire