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The ‘revolutionary journées’ of 13 May 1958
Neil Macmaster

popular masses. One of the ‘bibles’ or key references here was Chakotin’s The Rape of the Masses (1939), by a leading Russian microbiologist and pupil of Pavlov, who had studied and witnessed at first hand the crowd propaganda techniques of the Russian Revolution and Nazi Germany. Chakotin believed that there was a true scientific technique of crowd conditioning based on four instincts (of struggle, nutrition, sexuality and maternity) and that 90 per cent of the population could be influenced, not by rational data or argument, but by ‘senso-propaganda’ that played on

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

visited Britain in early 1916 and the President’s appeal of January 1917 for a negotiated peace. This was soon followed by the Russian Revolution and eventual withdrawal of that nation from the conflict. However, peace did not come as expected, and Keynes’ pessimism took over once more and, ‘reached its peak at the end of 1917 and continued until the end of the war’,34 spilling over into his account of the peace negotiations contained within The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919). As he wrote to his mother in April 1918: Politics and war are just as depressing or

in A war of individuals
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

work in particular) and returned to the Potteries. The following year saw her return to the capital, where she helped to found the 17 Club in Gerrard Street in the wake of the tide of hope for peace and a new world order that followed the Russian Revolution. However, with its unruly mixture of revolutionaries, anarchists and pacifists, she felt the club to be badly organised, and she returned to the Midlands in order to help her recently widowed Aunt Kat (whose husband had been killed at the front on Hill 60) and her three children. She re-established links with the

in A war of individuals
Yulia Karpova

available archival documents, see Gough, The Artist as Producer. TsGALI SPb, f. 266, op. 1, d. 291, ll. 72–89. Sergei Temerin, ‘Izucheniie dekorativnogo iskusstva v sovetskom iskusstvoznanii za 40 let’, Dekorativnoe Iskusstvo SSSR 1 (1958), 30–6; Richard Stites, ‘Anti-iconoclasm’, in Richard Stites, Revolutionary Dreams: Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp. 76–8; Gusarova, ‘Leningradskaia keramika’, pp. 49–51. Though certain craft cooperatives received the support of art historians and were able to

in Comradely objects
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Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

one of several niche directors who sought to strike a different tone and maintain some of the agendas set by Pakula and Coppola a decade earlier. Alongside him, Warren Beatty, Constantin Costa-​Gavras and Mike Nichols all made important contributions to Hollywood’s more daring liberal wing, with movies such as Reds (1981), Missing (1982) and Silkwood (1983). The Russian Revolution, South American politics and corporate and political cover-​ups seemed unlikely subjects for critical let alone commercial successes during the decade, but each of the directors bucked the

in The cinema of Oliver Stone