Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

extractive context of plural authorities. Alongside the already militarised environment caused by the wars of 1996 and 1998, both North and South Kivu have been targets of unilateral UN and UN-backed military operations of the DRC and Rwanda against remaining armed groups. This is in addition to continuous proxy wars between the DRC and Rwanda, which both cooperate and antagonise at multiple levels, and a corresponding mushrooming of popular Mai Mai militias. Militarisation has also followed from the tendency to deploy the military as representatives of state authority and

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
The trial in history, volume II
Editor:

Lawyers had been producing reports of trials and appellate proceedings in order to understand the law and practices of the Westminster courts since the Middle Ages, and printed reports had appeared in the late fifteenth century. This book considers trials in the regular English criminal courts in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It also considers the contribution of criminal lawyers in developing the modern rules of evidence. The book explores the influence of scientific and pseudoscientific knowledge on Victorian insanity trials and trials for homosexual offences, respectively. The British Trials Collection contains the only readily accessible and near-verbatim accounts of civil trials from the 1760s, 1770s, and 1780s, decades crucial to understanding how the rules of evidence developed. It might be thought that Defence of the Realm Acts (DORA) or its regulations would have introduced trials in camera. The book presents a comparative critique of war crimes trials before the International Military Tribunals at Nuremberg and Tokyo and the International Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. The first spy trial by court martial after the legal change in 1915 was that of Robert Rosenthal, who was German. The book also considers the principal features of the first war crimes trial of the twenty-first century in terms of personnel and procedures, the alleged crimes, and issues of legality and legitimacy. It also speculates on the narratives or non-narratives of the trial and how these may impact on the professed aims and objectives of the litigation.

Open Access (free)
Corpses and mass violence: an inventory of the unthinkable
Élisabeth Anstett
and
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

Anstett & Jean-Marc Dreyfus Africa has suffered the Rwandan genocide, which claimed 800,000 victims over the course of just three months in 1994,8 and the sporadic yet recurring violence in Sudan since 1982, which has claimed over 2 million victims in total, many of them in Darfur,9 while specialists in this field find it difficult even to agree on what to call the constantly mutating cycle of violence which has claimed 4 million victims since 1994 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), and which has become far more than a simple after­shock from the

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Why exhume? Why identify?
Élisabeth Anstett
and
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

utilization of the work of forensic pathologists by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in 1995, or even the large-scale opening – only beginning in 2000 – of the mass graves of the Spanish Civil War. In Rwanda the victims of the genocide committed against the Tutsis were exhumed and reburied, sometimes repeatedly, by the tens of thousands between 1994 and today. This case of incomparable scale, which is sometimes accompanied by the exhibition of certain human remains or of entire bodies in memorials like those of Murambi or Ntarama, contrasts

in Human remains and identification
Open Access (free)
Élisabeth Anstett
and
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

the massacres of communists in the 1960s, Muslim or Buddhist rituals were replaced by various forms of religious syncretism.8 More recently, in Rwanda, Evangelical churches have rushed into the breach left open by the nervousness of the country’s Catholic Church, some of whose members were caught up in accusations of participation in the genocide, thereby offering a space of charismatic renewal in Christian ritual practice.9 In all of these cases it is as if the sheer scale of the murder and its unique nature prevented an extension of the usual fune­rary rituals to

in Human remains in society
Alexis Heraclides
and
Ada Dialla

Kurds of northern Iraq (1991), Somalia (1992), Bosnia (1992–95), the intervention of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) in Liberia (1990–96), the US-led intervention in Haiti (1994), French-led forces in Rwanda (1994), NATO’s intervention in Serbia and Kosovo (1999) and the Australian-led intervention in East Timor (1999). In Rwanda effective French intervention came very late, following three months of genocidal massacre by the Hutus of

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
The tales destruction tells
Élisabeth Anstett
and
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

sometimes played a part in the process of annihilation, this has not always, or everywhere, been the case, as the Rwandan genocide demonstrates. The industrialization of the destruction process can even be seen as an exception. The different ways in which bodies have been destroyed also raise the question of what happens to human remains. Bones, skulls, hair, and skin are sometimes put on display, as in Buchenwald or during the great famine in China, or simply left out in the open air, as was sometimes the case in post-Soviet Russia or in Cambodia.8 Exhibited, they can be

in Destruction and human remains
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

authorities and the civilian population, while establishing a rationale for its presence and command. The factual veracity of these claims is not as important as what they represent for the capacity to define the problem and the solution. For instance, speaking of the success of the IB that was authorised by the UN Security Council in response to the M-23, a MONUSCO officer indicated that: ‘The UN is claiming that we won, but it is the FARDC that did most of the fighting, the IB was only supporting. The M-23 was defeated because it didn’t have Rwandan support, Western FARDC

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

approach against armed groups as part of the political compromises with the FDLR, CNDP and Rwanda, and as a palliative to state absence. The chapter finishes with a section examining various examples of social service provision. All these examples illustrate that surviving and mitigating the effects of dispossession are simultaneously a way to provide self-management and to rearticulate the social and political space. They reaffirm mechanisms of selfreliance and assert alternative political agendas. In all these areas, although it might not be explicitly stated, women

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

emphasis squarely on the maintenance of international peace and security. SC Resolutions 770 (on Bosnia) and 794 (on Somalia) explicitly referred to the threats to ‘international peace and security’, 34 while SC Resolutions 929 (on Rwanda) and 940 (on Haiti) made reference to threats to ‘peace and security in the region’. 35 More significantly, international actors, in their

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change