Search results

Core historical concepts reconsidered
Adrian Zimmermann

’s thinking. In his ‘psychological’ revision of Marxism in the 1920s he considered exploitation as an ethical rather than an economic problem. This approach was already being disseminated by Mussolini, who shared with de Man and the German sociologist Robert Michels – a convert from syndicalism to fascism – common ideological roots in the ‘revolutionary revisionism’ of the French syndicalist thinker Georges Sorel (Sternhell et al. 1999: 310–12). Economic democracy after the Second World War The power of the trade unions was strengthened after the Second World War in many

in In search of social democracy
Catherine Baker

War – and yet the black soldiers on the Salonika Front, even alone, would show the region was not outside that genealogy (Bjelić 2016 ). The Great War is as much a part of the history of race and the Yugoslav region as the theme on which the most explicit discussions of race in the region have turned – the racialisation of ethnonational and religious boundaries that facilitated genocidal expressions of Serb and Croat ethnonationalism during the Second World War. Scientific racism and ethnonationalism before and during the Second World War

in Race and the Yugoslav region
De-scribing Imperial identity from alien to migrant
Peter Childs

Third World fiction after the Second World War that the fictional uses of “nation” and “nationalism” are most pronounced.’ He goes on to say that, following the war, English social identity underwent a transformation based on its earlier imperial encounters. Colonialism in reverse created ‘a new sense of what it means to be “English”’ (1990: 46–7). However, Brennan does not consider what changes have been wrought on that society, what reinventions of tradition have manufactured new Englands of the mind, alongside the pronouncements of newly forged nationalist

in Across the margins
Alexander Korb

area. ‘The exhumations were a dreadful task’, the general said. ‘Nobody could enter the cave because the rotting bodies stank so badly. One man who we lowered down on a rope fainted and we had to pull him out again.’ 2 It seems that the soldiers were finally equipped with gas masks. During the Second World War, up to 45 million people lost their lives.3 Almost a quarter of them were victims of targeted attacks with the intent to kill and mass murders, rather than armed hostili­ ties. While the death of the victims can be said to have been well researched, many

in Human remains and mass violence
Paul Henley

commercial film-making to feature exotic subject matter in the period prior to the Second World War was the genre that came to be known as the ‘travelogue’. Although the distinction may often have been blurred in practice, the travelogue may be differentiated from the expedition films of the interwar period such as those discussed in Chapter 1 , on the grounds that whereas the latter category consisted of films produced as a by-product of journeys that had some other purpose (exploration, the collection of zoological specimens, archaeological research, sometimes merely

in Beyond observation
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

This chapter examines specific ideological and aesthetic dimensions of the representation of children in American films produced during and directly after the Second World War in relation to the promotion and operations of the United Nations. 1 It addresses how pitiable and vulnerable children from the world’s warzones – specifically groups of orphaned, abandoned and injured children from

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Debatable lands and passable boundaries
Aileen Christianson

relation to Robert Burns: I don’t think we need a national bard. I think folk call him that out of laziness, because they can’t be bothered to read what’s been written since. It’s a monolithic attitude, where every era seems to have enshrined one male. A vibrant culture, as we have, is in the hands of many, many people. (quoted in Dunkerley, 1996)13 Hugh MacDiarmid, the writer who bestrode the Scottish literary renaissance (in many ways defining it), had an iconographic function similar to Burns in Scottish intellectual and literary life after the Second World War. The

in Across the margins
The Tokyo trial of Japanese leaders, 1946–48
Peter Lowe

World War rendered it urgent to decide, in 1945, how German and Japanese leaders should be punished. Some of the principal members of the Churchill coalition government preferred summary execution. This was the preferred solution of Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden, the Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary, and, interestingly, of the chief law officers of the Crown, the Lord Chancellor, Viscount Simon, and the Attorney General, Sir Donald Somervell.8 The Truman administration believed that it was necessary to establish formal tribunals comprising judges, appointed

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Jenny Edkins

young collaborator. By 1941, in the middle of the Second World War, it was some time since they had seen each other. Bohr was living in occupied Denmark, and Heisenberg worked as a scientist under the Nazi regime in Germany. Their days of collaboration were over. But in the autumn of 1941, Heisenberg travelled to Copenhagen to give a lecture. He also arranged a meeting with Bohr. The purposes and outcome of this meeting have been the subject of much speculation and curiosity ever since.14 Interest focuses on the role each of the protagonists was playing in the

in Change and the politics of certainty
Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)
Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti and Cecilia Sironi

the crowds: ‘The Italian people have created the Empire with their blood’, he professed; and ‘That commits you in front of God and in front of men for life and death.’11 Such speeches have been considered by historians as a prelude to the Second World War. The organisation of Army healthcare during the campaign, 1935–36 The main official documents relating to health in the Italian Empire are L’importanza dell’organizzazione sanitaria nella Guerra d’Etiopia (The 170 A sample of Italian Fascist colonialism importance of health organisation during the Ethiopian

in Colonial caring