the SecondWorldWar. Over time, arguably,
debt has become a more effective tool of wealth transfer and social
transformation than war—though, of course, the two are intertwined
in complex ways as the origins of the permanent public debt in England
make clear. Since we cannot hope to provide a comprehensive study in
such a short volume, what we intend to do is examine what we think
are some of the most insightful and significant aspects of debt being
mobilized as a technology of organized differential power. We begin by
examining how the imposition of imperial
nation had a
future, it was not as a political great power but as an intellectual
one. In their present situation, the Germans were – with an echo
1 Wolfgang Schivelbusch, Vor dem Vorhang: Das geistige Berlin 1945–1948
(Munich, 1995); Jörg Echternkamp, Nach dem Krieg: Alltagsnot, Neuorientierung und die Last der Vergangenheit 1945–1949 (Zürich, 2003). Parts of
this chapter build upon earlier texts of mine: Johan Östling, ‘The Regeneration
of the University: Karl Jaspers and the Humboldtian Tradition in the Wake
of the SecondWorldWar’, in The Humboldtian Tradition
betrayed long-standing beliefs in the responsibility of wives and mothers to subjugate their own health concerns for the welfare of their families. His argument that menopause constituted a dangerous age not only for a wife and mother, but also more importantly for her husband and children, was not unusual, and was often repeated on both sides of the Atlantic.
In the context of widespread concerns about rising levels of divorce and the breakdown of conventional social values before and after the SecondWorldWar, it
Massacres, missing corpses, and silence in a Bosnian community
5/15/2014 12:51:04 PM
16 Max Bergholz
particularly those of their relatives, neighbours, and fellow fighters,
and the ebb and flow of mass killing.
The community in question lived in the Kulen Vakuf region of
north-western Bosnia, approximately 50 km from the city of Bihać.
On the eve of the SecondWorldWar, the municipality of Kulen
Vakuf comprised a section of the Una River valley and its surrounding hills. In the valley were Muslim villages and the town of Kulen
Vakuf. Its population was nearly entirely Muslim, while in the surrounding hills were
’s thinking. In his ‘psychological’ revision of Marxism in
the 1920s he considered exploitation as an ethical rather than an economic
problem. This approach was already being disseminated by Mussolini, who
shared with de Man and the German sociologist Robert Michels – a convert
from syndicalism to fascism – common ideological roots in the ‘revolutionary revisionism’ of the French syndicalist thinker Georges Sorel (Sternhell
et al. 1999: 310–12).
Economic democracy after the SecondWorldWar
The power of the trade unions was strengthened after the SecondWorldWar in many
misgivings within the tradition itself.
Let us go back to the outbreak of another war. W. H. Auden’s poem ‘1st September
1939’ – widely invoked in relation to September 11th – oﬀers a response to the
impending SecondWorldWar reminiscent of Hesse’s to the First:
Art in time of war
Defenceless under the night
Our world in stupor lies;
Yet, dotted everywhere,
Ironic points of light
Flash out wherever the Just
Exchange their messages:
May I, composed like them
Of Eros and of dust,
Beleaguered by the same
Negation and despair,
Show an aﬃrming flame.5
War – and yet the black soldiers on the Salonika Front, even alone, would show the region was not outside that genealogy (Bjelić 2016 ). The Great War is as much a part of the history of race and the Yugoslav region as the theme on which the most explicit discussions of race in the region have turned – the racialisation of ethnonational and religious boundaries that facilitated genocidal expressions of Serb and Croat ethnonationalism during the SecondWorldWar.
Scientific racism and ethnonationalism before and during the SecondWorldWar
‘unethical’, she returned to this method ‘in desperation as long ago as 1939’ and prescribed it for ‘cases where orthodox methods had failed, sometimes repeatedly, because of non-use or misuse’. In her view, the method was best suited for ‘feckless and hyperfertile couples’ since it was the only method ‘free of patient error’.
This assertion was based on eugenic considerations towards the fertility of specific women.
After the SecondWorldWar and with the fear of global population growth
area. ‘The exhumations were a dreadful task’, the general said.
‘Nobody could enter the cave because the rotting bodies stank so
badly. One man who we lowered down on a rope fainted and we
had to pull him out again.’ 2 It seems that the soldiers were finally
equipped with gas masks.
During the SecondWorldWar, up to 45 million people lost their
lives.3 Almost a quarter of them were victims of targeted attacks
with the intent to kill and mass murders, rather than armed hostili
ties. While the death of the victims can be said to have been well
De-scribing Imperial identity from alien to migrant
Third World fiction after the SecondWorldWar that the fictional uses
of “nation” and “nationalism” are most pronounced.’ He goes on to say
that, following the war, English social identity underwent a transformation based on its earlier imperial encounters. Colonialism in reverse
created ‘a new sense of what it means to be “English”’ (1990: 46–7).
However, Brennan does not consider what changes have been wrought
on that society, what reinventions of tradition have manufactured new
Englands of the mind, alongside the pronouncements of newly forged