Open Access (free)
Religious legitimacy and the foreign policies of Saudi Arabia and Iran
Lucia Ardovini

. Nevertheless, after Khomeini’s takeover of the post-revolutionary process, the forced modernisation that Iran had undergone under the shah swiftly morphed into velayat-e faqih , governance of the jurists, which gives the religious clergy custodianship over the people. 6 Later on that year the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, the most sacred shrine of Islam, was seized by a group of Saudi religious insurgents in an open condemnation against the House of Al Saud’s policies, which they perceived as being increasingly pro-Western and largely

in Saudi Arabia and Iran
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
The reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702
Justin Champion

Reading scripture 3 . Reading Scripture: the reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702 religion ... it is more easy to guess what he was not, than to tell what ‘A heforwas. ’Tis certain, he was neither Jew nor Mahometan: But whether he S was a Christian, a Deist, a Pantheist, an Hobbist, or a Spinozist, is the Question’.1 Toland’s writings had ‘alarm’d all sober well-meaning Christians, and set the whole clergy against him’. Having explored how Toland lived and worked in a world of libraries and books, it is time to examine how his books worked in

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
Milton, Harrington and the Williamite monarchy, 1698–1714
Justin Champion

and oppressive Tyrant’, Toland cast off the ‘gaudy name of Majesty’ as not only a religious but ‘a civil kind of idolatry’. The Anglican obsession with the reputation of the (socalled) martyred king, Charles I, enshrined in the commemorative services on 30 January, was au fond the cause of contemporary political corruption. The pernicious tyranny of the Stuart monarchy was forged by a corrupt conspiracy of King, courtiers and clergy. This confederation was on-going. Charles I had encouraged the ‘worst and corruptest sort of courtiers’ and ‘the most ignorant, profane

in Republican learning
R. H. Helmholz

customary jurisdictional divide gave to the Church the right to hear causes involving marriage and divorce, defamation, testaments and probate, tithes and other church dues, religious offences like witchcraft, heresy and blasphemy, and also crimes of the flesh like fornication, adultery and pandering.1 Laity and the clergy alike were subject to this jurisdiction. No special jurisdiction ratione personae covering the clergy existed in the English courts, even though it was called for under the formal canon law,2 and this meant that trials in the courts would have been

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Richard Suggett
Eryn White

, however, that certain points in the criminal procedure linked the spoken and written word theatrically. As in England, convicted felons could claim ‘benefit of clergy’ by demonstrating in open court their ability to read in Latin like a clerk. Those who successfully claimed benefit of clergy were discharged after branding on the brawn of the thumb; those who failed to read were executed. These public demonstrations of literacy and non-literacy were dramatic, and sometimes produced unexpected results attributed to God’s intervention. In 1602 Thomas Bull was convicted of

in The spoken word
S.J. Barnett

religious pluralism has been that of geographic discovery. This influence, as it has been usually explained, was the realization that morally just societies could exist outside Christianity, that is to say without the Christian clergy which had claimed its role as indispensable in the formation and maintenance of such societies. The problem with this sort of approach is that the identification of influence is never simple, and the theory can easily (and I think more credibly) be turned on its head. It was rather perhaps that our perception of the new Pacific island

in The Enlightenment and religion
Christine E. Hallett

Evelyn Luard (known to her colleagues as ‘Kate’) might be viewed as a typical member of the early-twentieth-century British nursing elite.4 Born into the Victorian gentry, her upbringing imbued her with a sense of an inextricable link between privilege and service. Her father, the Revd Bixby Garnham Luard, was a member of the Anglican clergy, and in 1872, the year of Kate’s birth, the family was living in Aveley Vicarage in Essex. Kate was the tenth of thirteen children and, while still young, she moved with her family to Birch Rectory, a large and comfortable living

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Duncan Wilson

‘common link’ who facilitated debates between ‘experts in different disciplines and from different occupations’. This was especially the case for discussions of medical and biological research, which Ramsey considered to be the major source of ‘frontier problems’ in the 1960s and 1970s.65 Throughout the 1960s this belief led Ramsey to extend his work with the Church of England reports and play a ‘prominent part’ in efforts to promote collaboration between doctors, scientists, the clergy and others in a range of settings.66 During 1962 and 1963, for instance, he was on a

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Joris Vandendriessche
Tine Van Osselaer

the Belgian Congo. In the latter society as well, both doctors and clergy were involved. Yet, they also conclude that this apostolate was above all a propagated ideal that was difficult to put into practice in the colonial context itself. 71 In the 1930s, these new spaces of sociability testified of intense interactions between clergy and doctors, both on the national and the

in Medical histories of Belgium