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How African-Americans shape their collective identity through consumption
Virág Molnár
Michèle Lamont

identification and social categorisation in the creation of collective identity. We argue that for blacks the formation of collective identity is centred around defining their place in US society, i.e. finding various ways to demonstrate their social membership. The following section pieces together the literature on black consumption to show how focusing on group identification and social categorisation improves our understanding of the meaning of consumption for this group. We identify an alienationist, resistance, and discrimination perspective and propose a ‘social

in Innovation by demand
The Women’s National Commission
Wendy Stokes

184 CASE STUDIES 9 The government of the United Kingdom: the Women’s National Commission1 wendy stokes Introduction There have been two significant stages in the creation of national machineries for women within government in the United Kingdom. The first phase was in the 1960s and 1970s, when anti-discrimination and equal pay legislation was accompanied by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Commissions (EOC) in England, Scotland and Wales, and the UK-wide Women’s National Commission (WNC). The governments of the 1980s and 1990s established a Minister for

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage
Christopher T. Marsden

zombie 2 that has sprung to life recently. It is a policy of Internet 3 non-discrimination based on innovation, free speech, privacy and content provider commercial self-interest, imposed on the technocratic economic regulation of telecommunications (telco) local access networks. The regulators, telcos and governments don’t like it one bit. The laws and regulations are formally ‘Open Internet’ not

in Network neutrality
Crystal Tremblay
Sarah Amyot

25 Participatory sustainable waste ­management project in Brazil Crystal Tremblay and Sarah Amyot Context People who live off materials recovered from the waste stream exist in every corner of the world. However, these recyclers are among the most exploited and socially and economically excluded people. Recyclers face enormous stigmatization, discrimination and marginalization. This project was established to focus on participatory waste management as an opportunity to generate income and to improve the quality of life of informal recyclers (called catadores in

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Jewish emancipation and the Jewish question
Robert Fine
Philip Spencer

were designated a separate ‘nation’ within their various host societies, permitted to have their own religious and legal institutions, and yet subjected to all manner of occupational, fiscal, residential and political discriminations. The subordinate status of Jews had left most Jews in poverty, vulnerable to external persecution from the Church, state and people, and dependent internally on their own rabbinical and financial elites. The Enlightenment project

in Antisemitism and the left
Towards Specialised Services?
Christopher T. Marsden

exploring why and how discrimination can affect users, it is important to slaughter the zettaflood myth: Internet data traffic is growing at historically low levels. The claim by IAPs wishing to traffic-manage the Internet is that Internet traffic growth is a zettaflood which is unmanageable by traditional means of expansion of bandwidth, and that therefore their practices are reasonable

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Christopher T. Marsden

resources to meet the multifaceted challenge of net neutrality enforcement. Expect the smaller regulators in the Baltics, Cyprus, Malta, Luxembourg, the Visegrad Four and perhaps Ireland to be the first regulators whose very uncertain regulatory commitment to net neutrality will be tested by zero rating and/or specialised service plans. This double whammy of positive and negative discrimination appears to be

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Lesbian citizenship and filmmaking in Sweden in the 1970s
Ingrid Ryberg

’ (1984) [‘Investigation about the situation of homosexuals in society’], would put homosexuality on the official political agenda as a legitimate social and civil rights issue in Sweden, paving the way for cohabitation, anti-​ discrimination, parental and marital rights during the following decades. The two rare lesbian films examined in this chapter, largely forgotten and overlooked in Swedish film history as well as in feminist and queer historiography, anticipate these crucial shifts in the official medical, legal and social understanding of homosexuality in Sweden

in The power of vulnerability
Stephen J. Kunitz

exposition, I shall deal only with policy changes in the United States since the late nineteenth century. American Indians and African Americans Because much has been written about the consequences of slavery and continuing discrimination for the health of African Americans, this chapter deals with Bayly 06_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:23 Page 147 Healthcare policy for American Indians since the early twentieth century a smaller minority group in the United States, namely American Indians and Alaska Natives. There are, however, some illuminating similarities and differences

in History, historians and development policy
The relative efficacy of poor relief provisions under the English Old Poor Law
Richard Smith

wider European context are considered. 1 The settlement laws, parochial residence and welfare citizenship under the Old Poor Law While this chapter is primarily concerned with the issue of welfare entitlements and discriminations in relation to parochial residence and particular notions of citizenship that flow from this membership or association, and is largely set within a pre-industrial English context, it is also concerned with a key issue in the comparative treatment of these matters over time within England and between England and her continental European

in History, historians and development policy