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Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

denominations, while underpinned by class and ideology. Moreover, we must be careful not to deny local agency within the environment of this regional struggle. Instead, as we shall see, space is shaped by the complex interaction of regional and local actors, meaning that domestic political wrangling takes place within the context of geopolitical struggles between actors whose networks transcend state borders, often underpinned by shared religious values. With this in mind, it is important to consider the role of religion within society, which raises a number of important

in Houses built on sand
Structuring self-made offers and demands
Andreas Maurer and Wolfgang Wessels

, pp. 8–14. See e.g. Tanja Börzel and Thomas Risse, ‘When Europe Hits Home: Europeanisation and Domestic Change’, in: European Integration online Papers, No. 15/2000–015.htm; Simon Bulmer, ‘Domestic Politics and EC Policy-Making’, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, No. 4/1994, pp. 349–363; Werner Feld, ‘Two-Tier Policy-Making in the EC: The Common Agricultural Policy’, in: Leon 2444Ch2 3/12/02 2:02 pm Page 57 The European Union matters 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 57 Hurwitz (ed.), Contemporary Perspectives on European

in Fifteen into one?
Thomas Robb

having to suffer the strategic consequences of this being done unilaterally.216 Domestic politics were also prevalent in altering US policy. Confronting a hostile Congress which demanded troop reductions globally (in 1971 the Democrat Senator George McGovern, who would contest the 1972 presidential election, called for the halving of American forces in Europe), the MBFR offered a way for Nixon to reduce America’s commitments while maintaining a rough equivalence with the USSR.217 Melvin Laird was especially conscious of the domestic pressures being placed upon the

in A strained partnership?
Kristóf Gosztonyi

, under certain circumstances, recent interventions seem to effect a decentralisation of power and responsibility rather than its centralisation. HercegBosna is such a case. Modern (peacekeeping) interventions take place in a political universe, the determining factors of which are: (a) traditional ‘Realpolitik’, (b) democratic principles, (c) human rights and (d) an aversion to overt engagement owing to domestic political concerns. It may be argued that under such circumstances a diffusion of power can take place in the political entity under pressure. This is what

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
Smooth adaptation to European values and institutions
Teija Tiilikainen

forms of deepening. The government’s emphasis was clearly on the citizen issue; Finland supported the Union more strongly in issues such as the fight against unemployment and the promotion of equality between the sexes.25 The openness and transparency of the Union was another important topic that was given much attention during the IGC. These were, in general, concerns that did not evoke much domestic political controversy. The main party in the opposition, the Centre Party, which takes a more reserved attitude towards integration, criticised the government for its

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

Several studies indicate that a state’s political system may profoundly affect its performance in the area of environmental policy, both in the area of domestic politics and international co-operation. It would be a gross over-simplification to treat the relationship between the two variables (‘political system’ and ‘environmental performance’) as precisely defined. Nevertheless, there seems to be a tendency for democratic states to show greater will to give priority to environmental considerations, while totalitarian states, though less inclined to prioritise

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Adrian Hyde-Price

analysis for international political theory; (2) the key structures in the states’ system are intersubjective, rather than material; and (3) state identities and interests are in important part constructed by these social structures, rather than given exogenously to the system by human nature or domestic politics’ (Wendt 1994 : 385). This structural definition of constructivism is problematic in a number of respects. A better

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Open Access (free)
Kosovo and the outlines of Europe’s new order
Sergei Medvedev and Peter van Ham

define itself as a community of nation states, but that the very governmentality of the Western states had acquired a cosmopolitan nature. ‘Kosovo’ can therefore be considered in terms of the globalisation of domestic politics, an ongoing process that replaces the old rules of power politics with the novel convention of cosmopolitan community. To the West, both ‘Kosovo’ and the deepening of globalisation may be considered

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Analysing two arenas over time
Wolfgang Wessels, Andreas Maurer and Jürgen Mittag

preference-building. ‘National interests are . . . neither invariant nor unimportant, but emerge through domestic political conflict as societal groups compete for political influence, national and transnational coalitions form . . . new political influence, national and transnational coalitions form, and new policy alternatives are recognised by governments.’54 The analysis of the configuration of national interests therefore includes a consideration of how groups of actors beyond the core of governments and administrations steer the definition or – as regards public

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
The European transformation of the French model
Andrea Szukala

able to mobilise domestic political and socio-economic interests to defend its role as a significant player. The analysis parts from the observation that after a period of disorientation and piecemeal reform during the 1980s, when a new European regulatory culture led to dysfunctions and a weakening of the French administrative state and its relations with business,6 state actors re-entered the game in the mid-1990s to try to fashion the ‘Europeanised’ French state in their own style. Fundamentals and institutional specifics of policy-making after Maastricht Five

in Fifteen into one?