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The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

the first time in peacetime compelled to import grain from the West to cover its needs. This tangibly illustrated the limits of Soviet economic policy. (Russia had been major wheat exporter to Europe throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century until the Bolshevik revolution.) This effectively marked the end to Soviet efforts pursued until the 1950s to achieve economic autarchy. It also became more difficult for the Soviet Union to forbid its satellite countries in Central and Eastern Europe to make contacts with the West, when it itself did so. The

in Destination Europe
Thomas Robb

another, and ‘there ought to be a lot of screwing going on’ but fundamentally ‘the political aspects of our relations should be overriding for both sides’.98 In a less robust fashion, Nixon issued a memorandum in January 1971 that explained US economic policy had to ‘maintain close coordination with basic foreign policy objectives’.99 In the final assessment, Nixon was not prepared to sacrifice the political–military relationship with Europe for short-term economic gains.100 As the president made clear, the political aspects of EEC enlargement were what fundamentally

in A strained partnership?
Christine E. Hallett

abdication of the Tsar and several months after the Bolsheviks had seized power’.49 She conveys a sense that, even as her personal life is taking a new and satisfying course, the life of her nation is gradually being strangled by the Bolshevik Revolution, the decline into civil war, and the New Economic Policy.50 At the end of the 1920s, Stalin’s ‘revolution from above’, incorporating the collectivisation of agriculture, the industrial drive of the first Five Year Plan, and the ‘Cultural Revolution’ 223 Volunteer girls directed against the old intelligentsia, swept away

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Why might history matter for development policy?
Ravi Kanbur

these issues at the research frontier, but they are often ignored in the policy context. Paradoxically, therefore, where it matters most they tend to ignore politics in the policy prescription, although these days economics research papers are replete with models of rational choice politics. There are two other features of the models and the world view, which underpin economic policy analysis, that are worth highlighting. ‘Initial conditions’ of natural resources, technology, etc. are taken as given for the policy analysis. And the behavioural responses of the

in History, historians and development policy
The crisis of British social democratic political economy
Noel Thompson

theoretical foundations of this were to be found, primarily, in the political economy of Michael Barratt Brown (From Labourism to Socialism, 1972), Stuart Holland (The Socialist Challenge, 1975), the work of the Institute for Workers’ Control M1738 - CALLAGHAN TEXT.indd 54 3/8/09 12:13:33 British social democratic political economy 55 and that of the Cambridge Economic Policy Group – Wynne Godley, Frances Cripps, et al.2 It was from such components that the political economy of a radical, left, Alternative Economic Strategy (AES) was constructed. For the AES left

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

the VB and the CP’86 is based on nationalist arguments of external exclusiveness. In addition, most (extreme right) political parties follow more or less the same structure in their election programmes. Hence, ideologically different parties address often similar issues. A good example is the environment, an issue which has been absent from few election programmes since the rise of Green parties in the 1980s. Another example is socio-economic policy, which features prominently in many programmes and which might explain why some authors choose to emphasise this

in The ideology of the extreme right
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

neo-liberal economic reforms of the 1980s and 1990s resulted in fundamental changes in the UK economy. 2 Assess the view that Gordon Brown is a cautious rather than a radical Chancellor of the Exchequer. 3 How much consensus on economic policy now exists in the British political system?

in Understanding British and European political issues
Ideology and the Conservative Party, 1997–2001
Mark Garnett

’s leaders were accused of not being socialist enough; after the fall of the Heath government in 1974 the ex-Prime Minister was attacked for the opposite reason. The 1975 Conservative leadership contest, in which Edward Heath was defeated by Margaret Thatcher, took place against a background of fierce ideological conflict between what came to be known as economic ‘wets’ and ‘dries’. The 1997 general election produced a more decisive defeat for the Conservatives than any of the three most recent reversals of fortune for either party; and economic policy, the traditional

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
George Philip

with tenured positions who do not show up to work at all, the ratio of patronage to permanent appointments in Latin American bureaucracies can be as high as 1 to 12. That is vastly higher than in the United States. In addition, judicial power is relatively weak in Latin America. Elected presidents sometimes simply refuse to implement the findings of the courts. Fujimori was notorious for not doing this in Peru, while Argentina’s president Eduardo Duhalde in January 2002 responded to an adverse Supreme Court decision on his government’s economic policies by decreeing

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

by some mainstream arguments such as, for instance, the democratic deficit, EU centralism, the loss of German sovereignty, and the unequal representation in the EP (e.g. REP 1999). Socio-economic policy A topic on which the REP changed considerably during the years, at least in its rhetoric, is socio-economic policy. The party has taken its policies for a large part from its mother party CSU, supporting the so-called soziale Marktwirtschaft (social market economy). Socio-economic policy constitutes one of the most widely elaborated themes in the programmes. Under

in The ideology of the extreme right