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Open Access (free)
Geoffrey Wood

words, individuals become freer from the straitjacket of tradition and its associated social taboos. Durkheim (1933) maintained that the increase in the division of labour as societies evolve necessarily involves an increase in government. However, associated with the process of development is the emergence of moral ideas that stress the rights and dignities of individuals. These pressures result in the state in most modern societies becoming more democratic, an institution ‘primarily responsible for the provision and protection of these individual rights’ (Giddens

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Terrell Carver

society? What are the appropriate strategies for realising it? How are individual rights and present entitlements balanced against the possibilities for collective change? How can change benefit excluded and oppressed groups? Without a theory of gender, the relevance of sex and sexuality to these questions would not be visible, and without a power-theory of gender, the link between contemporary political debates and movements

in Political concepts
David Miller

principle for deciding upon individualsrights to be included in the demos, it will yield some paradoxical results. Bauböck himself gives a relevant example, though I shall challenge his use of it. Consider a closed monastic order whose members have little interest in what is going on in the secular world beyond the cloister walls except so far as it interferes with their chosen way of life. Their overwhelming interest is in being left alone by

in Democratic inclusion
Pertti Joenniemi

all, the notion of ‘security’ had to adapt itself to the core constitutive themes of individual rights, exchange and openness. As Andreas Behnke has argued, the security argument was employed in a derivative and protective manner, rather than in a productive way. 29 During ‘Kosovo’, the notion of security was deprived of its traditional linkages to sovereignty and instead referred to the

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

the person directly affected, but against all civilized States. His conclusion is that under these circumstances collective intervention is ‘obligatory’. 50 Bluntschli of Heidelberg University asserted that ‘[t]he civilized nations in particular are called upon to develop the sentiment of the common laws of humanity’ 51 and that ‘[o]ne is authorized to intervene to ensure respect for the individual rights recognized

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

challenge to the individual basis of citizenship rights in a democracy by the advocates of group rights, who demand the recognition of social equality by political and institutional means. It is argued that women, the disabled, ethnic minorities, gays and others are disadvantaged by the emphasis on individual rights. Public opinion in democracies Democratic systems of government are supposed in some way to

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

discrimination will be alleviated. This type of inequality is particularly related to the distributional equality discussed earlier. The exercising of group rights and group equality seems to undermine the liberal concept of individual rights and individual equality as the central concern of political discourse. Group-rights theorists argue for unequal treatment for women and ethnic or racial minorities to overcome their unequal

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

structure of laws to protect individual rights, and raise taxes to pay for these three tasks. All else – education, health, welfare, pensions – could, and should, be provided by private organisations. Such views reappeared towards the end of the twentieth century as key elements of neo-liberalism in many Western conservative parties. The social-democratic view of the state Modern Western states are

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Ben Jackson

liberate individuals from ‘economic serfdom’ and ‘wage slavery’, added other speakers. Just as Lincoln opposed ‘those who found monetary profit in holding fellow human beings in bondage, so against Roosevelt there are united those who find pecuniary gain in the industrial serfdom of women and children’ (Barkley et al. all in PDNC: 47, 21, 227). The political language of the opponents of redistribution, it was argued, simply made a mockery of the meaning of freedom and individual rights: ‘the right to live involves the right to have the means to sustain life’ (P. McNutt

in In search of social democracy
Tami Amanda Jacoby

the community. In order to produce and reproduce the national security agenda, societies in conflict make demands of the citizen that otherwise peaceful societies would not. As the Israeli context demonstrates, women have been particularly torn between their individual rights and their collective duties. On the one hand, war has served as the catalyst for the political mobilization of Israeli women as

in Redefining security in the Middle East